Missha Time Revolution Night Repair New Science Activator Ampoule Mask
Missha

Time Revolution Night Repair New Science Activator Ampoule Mask

An intensive sheet mask that contains lactic acid fermented ingredients to create flawless and beautiful skin. It improves and prevents skin damage, leading to radiant skin the next morning.
Uploaded by: dariak on 04/08/2017

Ingredients overview

Water (Aqua)
what‑it‑does solvent
Normal (well kind of - it's purified and deionized) water. Usually the main solvent in cosmetic products. [more]
,
Bifida Ferment Lysate
A probiotic ingredient that might protect against UV-induced damage, help barrier repair and decrease skin sensitivity. [more]
,
Niacinamide
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | skin brightening | anti-acne | moisturizer/humectant
A multi-functional skincare superstar that has clinically proven anti-aging, skin lightening, anti-inflammatory and barrier repair properties. [more]
,
Glycereth-26
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | emollient | viscosity controlling
It's a nice glycerin-based humectant and emollient that gives skin a smooth and luxurious feel.
,
Glycerin
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
A real oldie but a goodie. Great natural moisturizer and skin-identical ingredient that plays an important role in skin hydration and general skin health. [more]
,
Betaine
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
A sugar beet derived amino acid derivative with nice skin protection and moisturization properties. Its special thing is being an osmolyte, a molecule that helps to control cell-water balance.  [more]
,
Sorbus Commixta Extract, Portulaca Oleracea Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antioxidant
Purslane Extract - a traditional Korean medicinal plant with skin-soothing, antioxidant and wound healing abilities. [more]
,
Sodium Hyaluronate
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
It's the salt form of famous humectant and natural moisturizing factor, hyaluronic acid. It can bind huge amounts of water and it's pretty much the current IT-moisturizer. [more]
, [more]
Sea Water
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent
,
Juniperus Chinensis Xylem Extract, Adenosine
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient
An important compound in our body that has a vital cell-signalling role. It is wound healing, anti-inflammatory and can help with barrier repair. [more]
,
Tocopheryl Acetate
what‑it‑does antioxidant
irritancy, com. 0 0
A form of vitamin E that works as an antioxidant. Compared to the pure form it's more stable, has longer shelf life, but it's also more poorly absorbed by the skin. [more]
,
Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Seed Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant
,
Echium Plantagineum Seed Oil
what‑it‑does solvent
,
Cardiospermum Halicacabum Flower/Leaf/Vine Extract, Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil Unsaponifiables
what‑it‑does soothing | skin-identical ingredient | emollient
The small (1.5-2%) part of sunflower oil that resists soap making. It contains valuable skin-nourishing molecules like vitamin E, sterols and fatty acids. It's also claimed to have lipid-replenishing and soothing properties. [more]
,
Pogostemon Cablin Oil
what‑it‑does perfuming
Patchouli essential oil that has a woody, earthy and camphoraceous scent and also has fixative properties. Also has fixative and antifungal properties. [more]
,
Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate
what‑it‑does antioxidant | skin brightening
A stable, oil-soluble form of Vitamin C, that might have (in-vitro results) all the magic abilities of pure vitamin C (antioxidant, collagen booster, skin brightener). [more]
,
Lactobacillus/Rice Ferment Filtrate, Lactococcus Ferment Lysate
A probiotic ingredient that - according to the manufacturer - positively influences both the speed and the quality of epidermal growth that result in better barrier function and overall skin quality. [more]
,
Manilkara Multinervis Leaf Extract, Alpha-Glucan Oligosaccharide
A bio-selective substrate that's claimed to protect and stimulate the beneficial microbial skin flora without doing the same with pathogens and undesirable flora. [more]
,
Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antioxidant
Chamomile extract - has great anti-inflammatory and some antioxidant properties. [more]
,
Cassia Alata Leaf Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antimicrobial/antibacterial
Candle Tree - a medicinal tree that has very effective fungicidal properties. Has also anti-inflammatory activity and might give DNA protection from UV rays. [more]
,
Laminaria Digitata Extract, Ophioglossum Vulgatum Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant
,
Lactobacillus Ferment
what‑it‑does soothing | preservative
A probiotic ingredient that might protect the skin against environmental aggressors, have anti-acne and anti-inflammatory properties. Also works as a natural preservative. [more]
,
Grifola Frondosa (Maitake) Mycelium Ferment Filtrate Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant | moisturizer/humectant
,
Saccharomyces Ferment Filtrate
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
A liquidy, almost-water-like stuff that you get by fermenting and filtering yeast. It's rich in essential minerals, amino acids, beta-glucan and vitamins. It’s great for skin moisturization and soothing. [more]
,
Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil
what‑it‑does emollient
Meadowfoam Oil - An emollient plant that is stable, non-greasy and rapidly absorbed. It gives a soft, smooth, silky skin feel. [more]
,
Lactobacillus Soybean Ferment Extract, Saccharomyces/Viscum Album (Mistletoe) Ferment Extract, Yeast Ferment Extract, Beta-Sitosterol, Panthenol
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
Pro-Vitamin B5 is a goodie that moisturises the skin, has anti-inflammatory, skin protecting and wound healing properties. [more]
,
Pseudoalteromonas Ferment Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
A multi-functional active ingredient that has both skin-protecting and anti-aging abilities as well as sebum-regulating and mattifying magic powers. [more]
,
Tripeptide-1
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient
A small, three amino acid (glycine-histidine-lysine or GHK) peptide that is famous for being a type I collagen fragment. The theory behind collagen-fragment peptides is that when collagen naturally breaks down in the skin, the resulting peptide fragments signal to the skin that it should get to work and create some nice, new collagen. [more]
,
Tripeptide-10 Citrulline, Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
A chemically chopped up version of wheat protein with moisturizing and film-forming properties. [more]
,
Hydrolyzed Soy Protein
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
,
Cholesterol
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient
It's one of the important lipids that can be found naturally in the outer layer of the skin. About 25% of the goopy stuff between our skin cells consists of cholesterol. [more]
,
Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil
what‑it‑does emollient
Macadamia nut oil - A highly emollient oil rich in oleic acid (50-67%) and a rare fatty acid called palmitoleic acid (12-25%). It gives the skin a soft, supple and "cushiony" feel. [more]
,
Glyceryl Linolenate
what‑it‑does emollient
,
Glyceryl Linoleate
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
,
Ubiquinone
what‑it‑does antioxidant
Q10 - an antioxidant found naturally in human cells where it plays an important role in energy production. As for skincare, it works as an awesome antioxidant that might also be able to reduce wrinkle depth. [more]
,
Retinol
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient
Vitamin A - the most proven anti-aging ingredient available OTC that can smooth wrinkles and make skin firmer. It might also be useful for acne-prone skin as it normalizes keratinization. [more]
,
Brassica Campestris (Rapeseed) Sterols
what‑it‑does emollient
,
Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate
what‑it‑does antioxidant | anti-acne
The sodium salt form of skincare superstar, vitamin C. If you do not know what the big fuss about vitamin C is, you are missing out and you have to click here and read all the geeky details about it.Pure vitamin C (aka ascorbic acid, AA) is great and all, but its lack of stability is a big challenge for the cosmetics industry. [more]
,
Cucumis Melo (Melon) Fruit Extract, Biotin
Vitamin H is a great supplement for stronger nails and hair. As a skincare ingredient, it's a bit more questionable, but it might smooth the skin and strengthen the hair. [more]
,
Amaranthus Caudatus Seed Extract
what‑it‑does emollient
It's the seed extract of the popular health food, amaranth. The oily extract works as a great emollient, moisturizing plant oil for skin and hair. [more]
,
Acetyl Hexapeptide-8
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
Argireline - famous peptide that's often referred to as "Botox in a jar". In reality, it's nowhere near that powerful, but it can smooth wrinkles to some extent by preventing facial muscles from contracting. [more]
,
Copper Tripeptide-1
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | soothing | antioxidant
A copper-peptide complex that has unique wound healing and skin remodelling properties. It's also an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. [more]
,
Butylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent
irritancy, com. 0 1
An often used glycol that works as a solvent, humectant, penetration enhancer and also gives a good slip to the products. [more]
,
Peg-11 Methyl Ether Dimethicone
what‑it‑does emulsifying
,
Peg-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A castor oil derived, white, lard-like helper ingredient that is used as a solubilizer to put fragrances into water-based products such as toners.
,
Peg-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A mildly viscous, amber-colored liquid that works as an emulsifier and surfactant. [more]
,
Ppg-26-Buteth-26
A helper ingredient that usually comes to the formula coupled with PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil. The two together work as surfactants and oil solubilizers. [more]
,
Caprylhydroxamic Acid
what‑it‑does chelating
A so-called chelating agent that helps to preserve cosmetic products by neutralizing the metal ions (especially iron) in the formula (that usually get into there from water). [more]
,
Carbomer
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
It’s a handy white powder that magically converts a liquid into a nice gel formula. [more]
,
Triethanolamine
what‑it‑does buffering | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 0 2
Helps to set the pH of a cosmetic formulation to be right. It’s very alkaline. [more]
,
Cyclopentasiloxane
what‑it‑does emollient | solvent
It's a super commonly used water-thin volatile silicone that gives skin and hair a silky, smooth feel.  [more]
,
Dimethicone
what‑it‑does emollient
irritancy, com. 0 1
A very common silicone that gives both skin and hair a silky smooth feel. It also forms a protective barrier on the skin and fills in fine lines. Also used for scar treatment. [more]
,
Bis-Peg-18 Methyl Ether Dimethyl Silane
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
A type of silicone that makes the skin smooth and nice (emollient), moisturizes and helps to reduce the tackiness of the products. [more]
,
Xanthan Gum
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A super commonly used thickener and emulsion stabilizer. [more]
,
Dipropylene Glycol
what‑it‑does solvent | viscosity controlling
A clear, colorless liquid that works as a solvent and viscosity decreasing ingredient. 
,
Hydrogenated Lecithin
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
It's the chemically chopped up version of normal lecithin. Most often it's used to create liposomes and to coat and stabilize some other ingredient. 
,
Lauryl Methacrylate/Glycol Dimethacrylate Crosspolymer, Dextrin
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | moisturizer/humectant
A little helper ingredient that can be a thickener, a humectant, a foam booster, an adhesion promoter and a filler. [more]
,
Octyldodecanol
what‑it‑does emollient
A clear, slightly yellow, odorless oil  that's a very common, medium-spreading emollient. It makes the skin feel nice and smooth and works in a wide range of formulas.
,
Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A white, elastomeric silicone powder that gives a nice silky and powdery feel to the products. [more]
,
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
Glyceryl Polyacrylate, Propylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
irritancy, com. 0 0
A common glycol that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products. It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer. [more]
,
Dimethiconol
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
A thick, high molecular weight silicone that is usually diluted in a lighter silicone fluid. The dimethiconol containing silicone blends leave a silky smooth, non-greasy film on the skin. [more]
,
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
what‑it‑does emollient
A very common emollient that makes your skin feel nice and smooth. Comes from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s light-textured, clear, odorless and non-greasy. [more]
,
Polysorbate 20
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 0 0
It's a common little helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix together. Also, it can help to increase the solubility of some other ingredients in the formula. 
,
Glyceryl Arachidonate
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
,
Ceteth-24
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Choleth-24
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Hydroxypropyltrimonium Maltodextrin Crosspolymer
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing
,
Cetyl Phosphate
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A white to beige powder that helps oil and water to mix nicely together (aka oil in water emulsifier). It is a good emulsifier choice for stable water-resistant sunscreen formulas. [more]
,
Lecithin
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
It's quite the multi-tasker: an emollient and water-binding ingredient but also an emulsifier and can be used for stabilization purposes. It's also often used to create liposomes.  [more]
,
Peg-5 Rapeseed Sterol
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Ceteth-3
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Ceteth-5
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Silica
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | abrasive/scrub
A white powdery thing that can mattify the skin and thicken up cosmetic products. [more]
,
Disodium Edta
what‑it‑does chelating | viscosity controlling
Super common little helper ingredient that helps products to remain nice and stable for a longer time. It does so by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula (that usually get into there from water) that would otherwise cause some not so nice changes. [more]
[less]

Highlights

Key Ingredients

Anti-acne: Niacinamide
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | skin brightening | anti-acne | moisturizer/humectant
A multi-functional skincare superstar that has clinically proven anti-aging, skin lightening, anti-inflammatory and barrier repair properties. [more]
,
Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate
what‑it‑does antioxidant | anti-acne
The sodium salt form of skincare superstar, vitamin C. If you do not know what the big fuss about vitamin C is, you are missing out and you have to click here and read all the geeky details about it.Pure vitamin C (aka ascorbic acid, AA) is great and all, but its lack of stability is a big challenge for the cosmetics industry. [more]
Antioxidant: Portulaca Oleracea Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antioxidant
Purslane Extract - a traditional Korean medicinal plant with skin-soothing, antioxidant and wound healing abilities. [more]
,
Tocopheryl Acetate
what‑it‑does antioxidant
irritancy, com. 0 0
A form of vitamin E that works as an antioxidant. Compared to the pure form it's more stable, has longer shelf life, but it's also more poorly absorbed by the skin. [more]
,
Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Seed Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant
,
Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate
what‑it‑does antioxidant | skin brightening
A stable, oil-soluble form of Vitamin C, that might have (in-vitro results) all the magic abilities of pure vitamin C (antioxidant, collagen booster, skin brightener). [more]
,
Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antioxidant
Chamomile extract - has great anti-inflammatory and some antioxidant properties. [more]
,
Ophioglossum Vulgatum Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant
,
Grifola Frondosa (Maitake) Mycelium Ferment Filtrate Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant | moisturizer/humectant
,
Ubiquinone
what‑it‑does antioxidant
Q10 - an antioxidant found naturally in human cells where it plays an important role in energy production. As for skincare, it works as an awesome antioxidant that might also be able to reduce wrinkle depth. [more]
,
Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate
what‑it‑does antioxidant | anti-acne
The sodium salt form of skincare superstar, vitamin C. If you do not know what the big fuss about vitamin C is, you are missing out and you have to click here and read all the geeky details about it.Pure vitamin C (aka ascorbic acid, AA) is great and all, but its lack of stability is a big challenge for the cosmetics industry. [more]
,
Copper Tripeptide-1
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | soothing | antioxidant
A copper-peptide complex that has unique wound healing and skin remodelling properties. It's also an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. [more]
Cell-communicating ingredient: Niacinamide
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | skin brightening | anti-acne | moisturizer/humectant
A multi-functional skincare superstar that has clinically proven anti-aging, skin lightening, anti-inflammatory and barrier repair properties. [more]
,
Adenosine
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient
An important compound in our body that has a vital cell-signalling role. It is wound healing, anti-inflammatory and can help with barrier repair. [more]
,
Tripeptide-1
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient
A small, three amino acid (glycine-histidine-lysine or GHK) peptide that is famous for being a type I collagen fragment. The theory behind collagen-fragment peptides is that when collagen naturally breaks down in the skin, the resulting peptide fragments signal to the skin that it should get to work and create some nice, new collagen. [more]
,
Retinol
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient
Vitamin A - the most proven anti-aging ingredient available OTC that can smooth wrinkles and make skin firmer. It might also be useful for acne-prone skin as it normalizes keratinization. [more]
,
Acetyl Hexapeptide-8
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
Argireline - famous peptide that's often referred to as "Botox in a jar". In reality, it's nowhere near that powerful, but it can smooth wrinkles to some extent by preventing facial muscles from contracting. [more]
,
Copper Tripeptide-1
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | soothing | antioxidant
A copper-peptide complex that has unique wound healing and skin remodelling properties. It's also an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. [more]
Skin brightening: Niacinamide
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | skin brightening | anti-acne | moisturizer/humectant
A multi-functional skincare superstar that has clinically proven anti-aging, skin lightening, anti-inflammatory and barrier repair properties. [more]
,
Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate
what‑it‑does antioxidant | skin brightening
A stable, oil-soluble form of Vitamin C, that might have (in-vitro results) all the magic abilities of pure vitamin C (antioxidant, collagen booster, skin brightener). [more]
Skin-identical ingredient: Glycerin
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
A real oldie but a goodie. Great natural moisturizer and skin-identical ingredient that plays an important role in skin hydration and general skin health. [more]
,
Sodium Hyaluronate
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
It's the salt form of famous humectant and natural moisturizing factor, hyaluronic acid. It can bind huge amounts of water and it's pretty much the current IT-moisturizer. [more]
,
Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil Unsaponifiables
what‑it‑does soothing | skin-identical ingredient | emollient
The small (1.5-2%) part of sunflower oil that resists soap making. It contains valuable skin-nourishing molecules like vitamin E, sterols and fatty acids. It's also claimed to have lipid-replenishing and soothing properties. [more]
,
Cholesterol
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient
It's one of the important lipids that can be found naturally in the outer layer of the skin. About 25% of the goopy stuff between our skin cells consists of cholesterol. [more]
Soothing: Portulaca Oleracea Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antioxidant
Purslane Extract - a traditional Korean medicinal plant with skin-soothing, antioxidant and wound healing abilities. [more]
,
Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil Unsaponifiables
what‑it‑does soothing | skin-identical ingredient | emollient
The small (1.5-2%) part of sunflower oil that resists soap making. It contains valuable skin-nourishing molecules like vitamin E, sterols and fatty acids. It's also claimed to have lipid-replenishing and soothing properties. [more]
,
Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antioxidant
Chamomile extract - has great anti-inflammatory and some antioxidant properties. [more]
,
Cassia Alata Leaf Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antimicrobial/antibacterial
Candle Tree - a medicinal tree that has very effective fungicidal properties. Has also anti-inflammatory activity and might give DNA protection from UV rays. [more]
,
Lactobacillus Ferment
what‑it‑does soothing | preservative
A probiotic ingredient that might protect the skin against environmental aggressors, have anti-acne and anti-inflammatory properties. Also works as a natural preservative. [more]
,
Saccharomyces Ferment Filtrate
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
A liquidy, almost-water-like stuff that you get by fermenting and filtering yeast. It's rich in essential minerals, amino acids, beta-glucan and vitamins. It’s great for skin moisturization and soothing. [more]
,
Panthenol
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
Pro-Vitamin B5 is a goodie that moisturises the skin, has anti-inflammatory, skin protecting and wound healing properties. [more]
,
Pseudoalteromonas Ferment Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
A multi-functional active ingredient that has both skin-protecting and anti-aging abilities as well as sebum-regulating and mattifying magic powers. [more]
,
Copper Tripeptide-1
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | soothing | antioxidant
A copper-peptide complex that has unique wound healing and skin remodelling properties. It's also an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. [more]

Show all ingredients by function

Other Ingredients

Abrasive/scrub: Silica
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | abrasive/scrub
A white powdery thing that can mattify the skin and thicken up cosmetic products. [more]
Antimicrobial/antibacterial: Cassia Alata Leaf Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antimicrobial/antibacterial
Candle Tree - a medicinal tree that has very effective fungicidal properties. Has also anti-inflammatory activity and might give DNA protection from UV rays. [more]
Buffering: Triethanolamine
what‑it‑does buffering | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 0 2
Helps to set the pH of a cosmetic formulation to be right. It’s very alkaline. [more]
Chelating: Caprylhydroxamic Acid
what‑it‑does chelating
A so-called chelating agent that helps to preserve cosmetic products by neutralizing the metal ions (especially iron) in the formula (that usually get into there from water). [more]
,
Disodium Edta
what‑it‑does chelating | viscosity controlling
Super common little helper ingredient that helps products to remain nice and stable for a longer time. It does so by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula (that usually get into there from water) that would otherwise cause some not so nice changes. [more]
Emollient: Glycereth-26
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | emollient | viscosity controlling
It's a nice glycerin-based humectant and emollient that gives skin a smooth and luxurious feel.
,
Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil Unsaponifiables
what‑it‑does soothing | skin-identical ingredient | emollient
The small (1.5-2%) part of sunflower oil that resists soap making. It contains valuable skin-nourishing molecules like vitamin E, sterols and fatty acids. It's also claimed to have lipid-replenishing and soothing properties. [more]
,
Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil
what‑it‑does emollient
Meadowfoam Oil - An emollient plant that is stable, non-greasy and rapidly absorbed. It gives a soft, smooth, silky skin feel. [more]
,
Cholesterol
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient
It's one of the important lipids that can be found naturally in the outer layer of the skin. About 25% of the goopy stuff between our skin cells consists of cholesterol. [more]
,
Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil
what‑it‑does emollient
Macadamia nut oil - A highly emollient oil rich in oleic acid (50-67%) and a rare fatty acid called palmitoleic acid (12-25%). It gives the skin a soft, supple and "cushiony" feel. [more]
,
Glyceryl Linolenate
what‑it‑does emollient
,
Glyceryl Linoleate
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
,
Brassica Campestris (Rapeseed) Sterols
what‑it‑does emollient
,
Amaranthus Caudatus Seed Extract
what‑it‑does emollient
It's the seed extract of the popular health food, amaranth. The oily extract works as a great emollient, moisturizing plant oil for skin and hair. [more]
,
Cyclopentasiloxane
what‑it‑does emollient | solvent
It's a super commonly used water-thin volatile silicone that gives skin and hair a silky, smooth feel.  [more]
,
Dimethicone
what‑it‑does emollient
irritancy, com. 0 1
A very common silicone that gives both skin and hair a silky smooth feel. It also forms a protective barrier on the skin and fills in fine lines. Also used for scar treatment. [more]
,
Bis-Peg-18 Methyl Ether Dimethyl Silane
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
A type of silicone that makes the skin smooth and nice (emollient), moisturizes and helps to reduce the tackiness of the products. [more]
,
Hydrogenated Lecithin
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
It's the chemically chopped up version of normal lecithin. Most often it's used to create liposomes and to coat and stabilize some other ingredient. 
,
Octyldodecanol
what‑it‑does emollient
A clear, slightly yellow, odorless oil  that's a very common, medium-spreading emollient. It makes the skin feel nice and smooth and works in a wide range of formulas.
,
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
Dimethiconol
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
A thick, high molecular weight silicone that is usually diluted in a lighter silicone fluid. The dimethiconol containing silicone blends leave a silky smooth, non-greasy film on the skin. [more]
,
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
what‑it‑does emollient
A very common emollient that makes your skin feel nice and smooth. Comes from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s light-textured, clear, odorless and non-greasy. [more]
,
Glyceryl Arachidonate
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
,
Lecithin
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
It's quite the multi-tasker: an emollient and water-binding ingredient but also an emulsifier and can be used for stabilization purposes. It's also often used to create liposomes.  [more]
Emulsifying: Glyceryl Linoleate
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
,
Peg-11 Methyl Ether Dimethicone
what‑it‑does emulsifying
,
Peg-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A castor oil derived, white, lard-like helper ingredient that is used as a solubilizer to put fragrances into water-based products such as toners.
,
Peg-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A mildly viscous, amber-colored liquid that works as an emulsifier and surfactant. [more]
,
Triethanolamine
what‑it‑does buffering | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 0 2
Helps to set the pH of a cosmetic formulation to be right. It’s very alkaline. [more]
,
Xanthan Gum
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A super commonly used thickener and emulsion stabilizer. [more]
,
Hydrogenated Lecithin
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
It's the chemically chopped up version of normal lecithin. Most often it's used to create liposomes and to coat and stabilize some other ingredient. 
,
Polysorbate 20
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 0 0
It's a common little helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix together. Also, it can help to increase the solubility of some other ingredients in the formula. 
,
Glyceryl Arachidonate
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
,
Ceteth-24
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Choleth-24
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Cetyl Phosphate
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A white to beige powder that helps oil and water to mix nicely together (aka oil in water emulsifier). It is a good emulsifier choice for stable water-resistant sunscreen formulas. [more]
,
Lecithin
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
It's quite the multi-tasker: an emollient and water-binding ingredient but also an emulsifier and can be used for stabilization purposes. It's also often used to create liposomes.  [more]
,
Peg-5 Rapeseed Sterol
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Ceteth-3
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Ceteth-5
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
Moisturizer/humectant: Niacinamide
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | skin brightening | anti-acne | moisturizer/humectant
A multi-functional skincare superstar that has clinically proven anti-aging, skin lightening, anti-inflammatory and barrier repair properties. [more]
,
Glycereth-26
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | emollient | viscosity controlling
It's a nice glycerin-based humectant and emollient that gives skin a smooth and luxurious feel.
,
Glycerin
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
A real oldie but a goodie. Great natural moisturizer and skin-identical ingredient that plays an important role in skin hydration and general skin health. [more]
,
Betaine
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
A sugar beet derived amino acid derivative with nice skin protection and moisturization properties. Its special thing is being an osmolyte, a molecule that helps to control cell-water balance.  [more]
,
Sodium Hyaluronate
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
It's the salt form of famous humectant and natural moisturizing factor, hyaluronic acid. It can bind huge amounts of water and it's pretty much the current IT-moisturizer. [more]
,
Sea Water
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent
,
Grifola Frondosa (Maitake) Mycelium Ferment Filtrate Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant | moisturizer/humectant
,
Saccharomyces Ferment Filtrate
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
A liquidy, almost-water-like stuff that you get by fermenting and filtering yeast. It's rich in essential minerals, amino acids, beta-glucan and vitamins. It’s great for skin moisturization and soothing. [more]
,
Panthenol
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
Pro-Vitamin B5 is a goodie that moisturises the skin, has anti-inflammatory, skin protecting and wound healing properties. [more]
,
Pseudoalteromonas Ferment Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
A multi-functional active ingredient that has both skin-protecting and anti-aging abilities as well as sebum-regulating and mattifying magic powers. [more]
,
Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
A chemically chopped up version of wheat protein with moisturizing and film-forming properties. [more]
,
Hydrolyzed Soy Protein
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
,
Acetyl Hexapeptide-8
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
Argireline - famous peptide that's often referred to as "Botox in a jar". In reality, it's nowhere near that powerful, but it can smooth wrinkles to some extent by preventing facial muscles from contracting. [more]
,
Butylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent
irritancy, com. 0 1
An often used glycol that works as a solvent, humectant, penetration enhancer and also gives a good slip to the products. [more]
,
Bis-Peg-18 Methyl Ether Dimethyl Silane
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
A type of silicone that makes the skin smooth and nice (emollient), moisturizes and helps to reduce the tackiness of the products. [more]
,
Dextrin
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | moisturizer/humectant
A little helper ingredient that can be a thickener, a humectant, a foam booster, an adhesion promoter and a filler. [more]
,
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
Propylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
irritancy, com. 0 0
A common glycol that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products. It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer. [more]
,
Dimethiconol
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
A thick, high molecular weight silicone that is usually diluted in a lighter silicone fluid. The dimethiconol containing silicone blends leave a silky smooth, non-greasy film on the skin. [more]
Perfuming: Pogostemon Cablin Oil
what‑it‑does perfuming
Patchouli essential oil that has a woody, earthy and camphoraceous scent and also has fixative properties. Also has fixative and antifungal properties. [more]
Preservative: Lactobacillus Ferment
what‑it‑does soothing | preservative
A probiotic ingredient that might protect the skin against environmental aggressors, have anti-acne and anti-inflammatory properties. Also works as a natural preservative. [more]
Solvent: Water (Aqua)
what‑it‑does solvent
Normal (well kind of - it's purified and deionized) water. Usually the main solvent in cosmetic products. [more]
,
Sea Water
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent
,
Echium Plantagineum Seed Oil
what‑it‑does solvent
,
Butylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent
irritancy, com. 0 1
An often used glycol that works as a solvent, humectant, penetration enhancer and also gives a good slip to the products. [more]
,
Cyclopentasiloxane
what‑it‑does emollient | solvent
It's a super commonly used water-thin volatile silicone that gives skin and hair a silky, smooth feel.  [more]
,
Dipropylene Glycol
what‑it‑does solvent | viscosity controlling
A clear, colorless liquid that works as a solvent and viscosity decreasing ingredient. 
,
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
Propylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
irritancy, com. 0 0
A common glycol that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products. It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer. [more]
Surfactant/cleansing: Peg-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A castor oil derived, white, lard-like helper ingredient that is used as a solubilizer to put fragrances into water-based products such as toners.
,
Peg-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A mildly viscous, amber-colored liquid that works as an emulsifier and surfactant. [more]
,
Triethanolamine
what‑it‑does buffering | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 0 2
Helps to set the pH of a cosmetic formulation to be right. It’s very alkaline. [more]
,
Xanthan Gum
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A super commonly used thickener and emulsion stabilizer. [more]
,
Polysorbate 20
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 0 0
It's a common little helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix together. Also, it can help to increase the solubility of some other ingredients in the formula. 
,
Ceteth-24
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Ceteth-24
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Choleth-24
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Hydroxypropyltrimonium Maltodextrin Crosspolymer
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing
,
Cetyl Phosphate
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A white to beige powder that helps oil and water to mix nicely together (aka oil in water emulsifier). It is a good emulsifier choice for stable water-resistant sunscreen formulas. [more]
,
Peg-5 Rapeseed Sterol
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Peg-5 Rapeseed Sterol
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Ceteth-3
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
,
Ceteth-5
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
Viscosity controlling: Glycereth-26
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | emollient | viscosity controlling
It's a nice glycerin-based humectant and emollient that gives skin a smooth and luxurious feel.
,
Carbomer
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
It’s a handy white powder that magically converts a liquid into a nice gel formula. [more]
,
Xanthan Gum
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A super commonly used thickener and emulsion stabilizer. [more]
,
Dipropylene Glycol
what‑it‑does solvent | viscosity controlling
A clear, colorless liquid that works as a solvent and viscosity decreasing ingredient. 
,
Dextrin
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | moisturizer/humectant
A little helper ingredient that can be a thickener, a humectant, a foam booster, an adhesion promoter and a filler. [more]
,
Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A white, elastomeric silicone powder that gives a nice silky and powdery feel to the products. [more]
,
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
Propylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
irritancy, com. 0 0
A common glycol that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products. It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer. [more]
,
Silica
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling | abrasive/scrub
A white powdery thing that can mattify the skin and thicken up cosmetic products. [more]
,
Disodium Edta
what‑it‑does chelating | viscosity controlling
Super common little helper ingredient that helps products to remain nice and stable for a longer time. It does so by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula (that usually get into there from water) that would otherwise cause some not so nice changes. [more]

Skim through

Ingredient name what-it-does irr., com. ID-Rating
Water (Aqua) solvent
Bifida Ferment Lysate goodie
Niacinamide cell-communicating ingredient, skin brightening, anti-acne, moisturizer/​humectant superstar
Glycereth-26 moisturizer/​humectant, emollient, viscosity controlling
Glycerin skin-identical ingredient, moisturizer/​humectant 0, 0 goodie
Betaine moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Sorbus Commixta Extract
Portulaca Oleracea Extract soothing, antioxidant goodie
Sodium Hyaluronate skin-identical ingredient, moisturizer/​humectant 0, 0 goodie
Sea Water moisturizer/​humectant, solvent
Juniperus Chinensis Xylem Extract
Adenosine cell-communicating ingredient goodie
Tocopheryl Acetate antioxidant 0, 0
Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Seed Extract antioxidant
Echium Plantagineum Seed Oil solvent
Cardiospermum Halicacabum Flower/Leaf/Vine Extract
Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil Unsaponifiables soothing, skin-identical ingredient, emollient goodie
Pogostemon Cablin Oil perfuming
Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate antioxidant, skin brightening goodie
Lactobacillus/Rice Ferment Filtrate
Lactococcus Ferment Lysate goodie
Manilkara Multinervis Leaf Extract
Alpha-Glucan Oligosaccharide goodie
Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract soothing, antioxidant goodie
Cassia Alata Leaf Extract soothing, antimicrobial/​antibacterial goodie
Laminaria Digitata Extract
Ophioglossum Vulgatum Extract antioxidant
Lactobacillus Ferment soothing, preservative goodie
Grifola Frondosa (Maitake) Mycelium Ferment Filtrate Extract antioxidant, moisturizer/​humectant
Saccharomyces Ferment Filtrate soothing, moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil emollient goodie
Lactobacillus Soybean Ferment Extract
Saccharomyces/Viscum Album (Mistletoe) Ferment Extract
Yeast Ferment Extract
Beta-Sitosterol
Panthenol soothing, moisturizer/​humectant 0, 0 goodie
Pseudoalteromonas Ferment Extract soothing, moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Tripeptide-1 cell-communicating ingredient goodie
Tripeptide-10 Citrulline
Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Hydrolyzed Soy Protein moisturizer/​humectant
Cholesterol skin-identical ingredient, emollient goodie
Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil emollient goodie
Glyceryl Linolenate emollient
Glyceryl Linoleate emollient, emulsifying
Ubiquinone antioxidant goodie
Retinol cell-communicating ingredient superstar
Brassica Campestris (Rapeseed) Sterols emollient
Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate antioxidant, anti-acne goodie
Cucumis Melo (Melon) Fruit Extract
Biotin
Amaranthus Caudatus Seed Extract emollient goodie
Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 cell-communicating ingredient, moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Copper Tripeptide-1 cell-communicating ingredient, soothing, antioxidant goodie
Butylene Glycol moisturizer/​humectant, solvent 0, 1
Peg-11 Methyl Ether Dimethicone emulsifying
Peg-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Peg-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Ppg-26-Buteth-26
Caprylhydroxamic Acid chelating
Carbomer viscosity controlling
Triethanolamine buffering, emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing 0, 2
Cyclopentasiloxane emollient, solvent
Dimethicone emollient 0, 1
Bis-Peg-18 Methyl Ether Dimethyl Silane emollient, moisturizer/​humectant
Xanthan Gum viscosity controlling, emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Dipropylene Glycol solvent, viscosity controlling
Hydrogenated Lecithin emollient, emulsifying goodie
Lauryl Methacrylate/Glycol Dimethacrylate Crosspolymer
Dextrin viscosity controlling, moisturizer/​humectant
Octyldodecanol emollient
Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer viscosity controlling
Cyclomethicone emollient, moisturizer/​humectant, solvent, viscosity controlling
Glyceryl Polyacrylate
Propylene Glycol moisturizer/​humectant, solvent, viscosity controlling 0, 0
Dimethiconol emollient, moisturizer/​humectant
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride emollient goodie
Polysorbate 20 emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing 0, 0
Glyceryl Arachidonate emollient, emulsifying
Ceteth-24 surfactant/​cleansing, emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Choleth-24 emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Hydroxypropyltrimonium Maltodextrin Crosspolymer surfactant/​cleansing
Cetyl Phosphate emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Lecithin emollient, emulsifying goodie
Peg-5 Rapeseed Sterol surfactant/​cleansing, emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Ceteth-3 emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Ceteth-5 emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Silica viscosity controlling, abrasive/​scrub
Disodium Edta chelating, viscosity controlling

Ingredients explained

Also-called: Aqua | What-it-does: solvent

Good old water, aka H2O. The most common skincare ingredient of all. You can usually find it right in the very first spot of the ingredient list, meaning it’s the biggest thing out of all the stuff that makes up the product. 

It’s mainly a solvent for ingredients that do not like to dissolve in oils but rather in water. 

Expand to read more

Once inside the skin, it hydrates, but not from the outside - putting pure water on the skin (hello long baths!) is drying. 

One more thing: the water used in cosmetics is purified and deionized (it means that almost all of the mineral ions inside it is removed). Like this, the products can stay more stable over time. 

It’s a probiotic ingredient that’s used in one of the most iconic serums in the world, the Estee Lauder Advanced Night Repair.

Based on manufacturer info it potently protects against UV-induced damage in the skin and helps with DNA repair. An Estee Lauder patent from 2009 also talks about DNA repair activity.

Expand to read more

As far as published research goes we could find one promising one. It showed that applying 10% bacterial extract to sensitive, reactive skin helped with better barrier function and decreased skin sensitivity

So all in all: definitely a promising ingredient, even for sensitive skin types but not the most proven one (yet).

Niacinamide - superstar
Also-called: vitamin B3, nicotinamide | What-it-does: cell-communicating ingredient, skin brightening, anti-acne, moisturizer/humectant
  • A multi-functional skincare superstar with several proven benefits for the skin
  • Great anti-aging, wrinkle smoothing ingredient used at 4-5% concentration
  • Fades brown spots alone or in combination with amino sugar, acetyl glucosamine
  • Increases ceramide synthesis that results in a stronger, healthier skin barrier and better skin hydration
  • Can help to improve several skin conditions including acne, rosacea, and atopic dermatitis
Read all the geeky details about Niacinamide here >>

It's a nice glycerin-based humectant and emollient that gives skin a smooth and luxurious feel.

Glycerin - goodie
Also-called: Glycerol | What-it-does: skin-identical ingredient, moisturizer/humectant | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0
  • A natural moisturizer that’s also in our skin
  • Super common, used for more than 50 years
  • Not only a simple moisturizer but plays an important role in keeping the stuff between our skin cells healthy
  • High-glycerin moisturizers are awesome for treating severely dry skin
Read all the geeky details about Glycerin here >>

Betaine - goodie
What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant

A sugar beet derived amino acid derivative with nice skin protection and moisturization properties. Betain's special thing is being an osmolyte, a molecule that helps to control cell-water balance.  It is also a natural osmoprotectant, meaning that it attracts water away from the protein surface and thus protects them from denaturation and increases their thermodynamic stability. 

It also gives sensorial benefits to the formula and when used in cleansers, it helps to make them milder and gentler. 

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Also-called: Purslane Extract | What-it-does: soothing, antioxidant

A nice succulent with bright yellow flowers and edible nutritious vegetables. It's a famous plant in Korean traditional medicine to treat infection and irritated skin.

Modern research confirms that it's loaded with skin-goodies: it's the richest green plant source of omega-3 fatty acids (α-linolenic acid), contains NMFs (polysaccharides and amino acids),  vitamins (β-carotene), minerals, and antioxidants (yellow betaxanthins and reddish betacyanins). Thanks to all its beneficial components, Purslane Extract has several magic properties: it's a great anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent and also has wound healing abilities

What-it-does: skin-identical ingredient, moisturizer/humectant | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0

It’s the - sodium form - cousin of the famous NMFhyaluronic acid (HA). If HA does not tell you anything we have a super detailed, geeky explanation about it here.  The TL; DR version of HA is that it's a huge polymer (big molecule from repeated subunits) found in the skin that acts as a sponge helping the skin to hold onto water, being plump and elastic. HA is famous for its crazy water holding capacity as it can bind up to 1000 times its own weight in water.

As far as skincare goes, sodium hyaluronate and hyaluronic acid are pretty much the same and the two names are used interchangeably. As cosmetic chemist kindofstephen writes on reddit  "sodium hyaluronate disassociates into hyaluronic acid molecule and a sodium atom in solution". 

Expand to read more

In spite of this, if you search for "hyaluronic acid vs sodium hyaluronate" you will find on multiple places that sodium hyaluronate is smaller and can penetrate the skin better. Chemically, this is definitely not true, as the two forms are almost the same, both are polymers and the subunits can be repeated in both forms as much as you like. (We also checked Prospector for sodium hyaluronate versions actually used in cosmetic products and found that the most common molecular weight was 1.5-1.8 million Da that absolutely counts as high molecular weight).

What seems to be a true difference, though, is that the salt form is more stable, easier to formulate and cheaper so it pops up more often on the ingredient lists. 

If you wanna become a real HA-and-the-skin expert you can read way more about the topic at hyaluronic acid (including penetration-questions, differences between high and low molecular weight versions and a bunch of references to scientific literature).

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Adenosine - goodie

Adenosine is an important little compound in our body that has a vital cell-signalling role. Research on smearing it on our face is also promising and shows so far a couple of things:

  • It can help with wound healing
  • It’s a good anti-inflammatory agent
  • It might even help with skin’s own collagen production and improve skin firmness and elasticity
  • It helps with barrier repair and protection
  • It might be even useful for the hair helping with hair thickness and hair growth
Also-called: Vitamin E Acetate | What-it-does: antioxidant | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0

It’s the most commonly used version of pure vitamin E in cosmetics. You can read all about the pure form here. This one is the so-called esterified version. 

According to famous dermatologist, Leslie Baumann while tocopheryl acetate is more stable and has a longer shelf life, it’s also more poorly absorbed by the skin and may not have the same awesome photoprotective effects as pure Vit E. 

What-it-does: antioxidant

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: solvent

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Also-called: Sunflower Oil Unsaponifiables | What-it-does: soothing, skin-identical ingredient, emollient

The unsaponifiable part of sunflower oil. It's the small part of the oil that resists saponification, the chemical reaction that happens during soap making.

If you want to understand saponification more, here is a short explanation (if not, we understand, just skip this paragraph): Oils are mostly made up of triglyceride molecules (a glycerin + three fatty acids attached to it) and during the soap making process a strong base splits the triglyceride molecule up to become a separate glycerin and three soap molecules (sodium salts of fatty acids). The fantastic Labmuffin blog has a handy explanation with great drawings about the soap-making reaction. 

Expand to read more

So, the triglyceride molecules are the saponifiable part of the oil, and the rest is the unsaponifiable part. In the case of sunflower oil, it's about 1.5-2% of the oil and consists of skin nourishing molecules like tocopherol (vitamin E), sterols or free fatty acids (fatty acids not bound up in a triglyceride molecule). 

According to manufacturer's info, it's an oily ingredient that not only simply moisturizes the skin but also has great lipid-replenishing and soothing properties. The clinical study done by the manufacturer (on 20 people) found that a cream with 2% active increases skin moisturization by 48.6% after 1 hour, and 34.2% after 24 hours. Applied twice daily for 4 weeks, the study participants had a major improvement in skin dryness, roughness, and desquamation (skin peeling) parameters.

Also-called: Patchouli Essential Oil | What-it-does: perfuming

If you are into perfumes, you must know patchouli as an important essential oil in the perfume industry. It boasts a pleasant woody, earthy and camphoraceous scent and has fixative properties (makes the fragrance long-lasting).

Its composition is pretty unique: it does not contain any of the EU's 26 most common fragrance allergens, but its most important components are patchoulol (30%) and alpha-patchoulene (6%) which are responsible for its aroma and antifungal properties.

Expand to read more

Among essential oils, the allergen profile of patchouli counts as pretty good (much better than ylang-ylang or lemongrass oils), but if your skin is sensitive, it's still best to avoid it.

Also-called: Form of Vitamin C, Ascorbyl Isotetrapalmitate, Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate, ATIP | What-it-does: antioxidant, skin brightening

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate is a stable, oil-soluble form of skincare big shot Vitamin C. If you do not know, why Vitamin C is such a big deal in skincare, click here and read all about it. We are massive vitamin C fans and have written about it in excruciating detail.

So now, you know that Vitamin C is great and all but, it's really unstable and gives cosmetics companies many headaches. To solve this problem they came up with vitamin C derivatives, and one of them is Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate (let's call it ATIP in short).

Expand to read more

It's a really promising candidate (see below), but while reading all the goodness about it in a minute, do not forget that derivatives not only have to be absorbed into the skin but also have to be converted to pure vitamin C (ascorbic acid or AA) and the efficacy of the conversion is often unknown. In addition, vitamin C's three magic properties (antioxidant, collagen booster, skin brightener) are all properly proven in-vivo (on real people), but for the derivatives, it's mostly in-vitro studies or in the case of ATIP, it's in-vitro and done by an ingredient supplier.

With this context in mind let's see what ATIP might be able to do. First, it is stable (if pH < 5), easy to formulate and a joy to work with for a cosmetic chemist.

Second, because it's oil-soluble, its skin penetration abilities seem to be great. So great in fact, that it surpasses the penetration of pure vitamin C threefold at the same concentration and it penetrates successfully into the deeper layers of the skin (that is usually important to do some anti-aging work). There is also in-vitro data showing that it converts to AA in the skin. 

Third, ATIP seems to have all three magic abilities of pure vitamin C: it gives antioxidant protection from both UVB and UVA rays, it increases collagen synthesis (even more than AA) and it has a skin brightening effect by reducing melanogenesis by more than 80% in human melanoma cell cultures.

So this all sounds really great, but these are only in-vitro results at this point. We could find Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate mentioned only in one published in-vivo study that examined the anti-aging properties of a silicone formula containing 10% AA and 7% ATIP. The authors theorized that the 10% AA is released slowly from the silicon delivery system and probably stays in the upper layer of the skin to give antioxidant benefits, while ATIP penetrates more rapidly and deeply and gives some wrinkle-reducing benefits. The study was a small (10 patients), double-blind experiment, and the formula did show some measurable anti-aging results. However, it is hard to know how much pure vitamin C or ATIP can be thanked.

Bottom line: a really promising, but not well-proven vitamin C derivative that can be worth a try especially if you like experimenting (but if you like the tried and true, pure vitamin C will be your best bet).

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

It’s a fairly new probiotic ingredient that is obtained from the Gram-positive bacteria, Lactococcus lactis. The lysate is a fluid substance that is produced when you break down the cell membrane, which means it contains interesting things including cytoplasm and cell wall fragments.

According to the manufacturer, it positively influences both the speed and quality of epidermal growth that results in better barrier function and overall skin quality. To prove their point, the German manufacturer conducted several in-vitro (made in test tubes) tests examining how the treatment with Lactococcus Ferment Lysate (LFL) affects important skin proteins.

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They found that the proteins binding the live skin cells together (such as Occludin, Desmocollin 1 and Desmoglein 1) are stimulated by LFL, as well as the enzymes (Kallikrein 5 and 7) breaking the bonds between the shedding dead skin cells. LFL also had a positive influence on epidermal growth and on the thickness of the stratum corneum (the outermost layer of the skin). Another positive finding was that LFL stimulated the production of antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in the immunocompetence of the skin cells.

As for in-vivo tests, the manufacturer only did one and that had only 5 volunteers. They did some tape stripping (exactly what it sounds, hurting the skin by stripping off the top layers) and examined skin renewal and barrier recovery. 4 days after the experiment 3% Lactococcus Ferment Lysate used twice daily resulted in thicker stratum corneum (the difference was about 2 µm) and less trans-epidermal water loss. 

Overall, Lactococcus Ferment Lysate is a promising but fairly unproven ingredient that might help with the natural skin renewal process as well as with a healthy skin barrier and skin flora.  

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

A skin protecting ingredient obtained by enzymatic synthesis from natural sugars (sucrose and maltose). It's claimed to be a bio-selective substrate that protects and stimulates the beneficial microbial skin flora without doing the same with pathogens and undesirable flora. It also stimulates the antimicrobial peptide release by keratinocytes (skin cells). 

Also-called: German Chamomile Flower Extract | What-it-does: soothing, antioxidant

Chamomile probably needs no introduction as it's one of the most widely used medicinal herbs. You probably drink it regularly as a nice, calming cup of tea and it's also a regular on skincare ingredient lists.

Cosmetic companies use it mainly for its anti-inflammatory properties. It contains the terpenoids chamazulene and bisabolol both of which show great anti-inflammatory action in animal studies. On top of that chamomile also has some antioxidant activity (thanks to some other active ingredients called matricine, apigenin and luteolin).  

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Though chamomile is usually a goodie for the skin, it's also not uncommon to have an allergic reaction to it. 

Also-called: Candle Tree Leaf Extract | What-it-does: soothing, antimicrobial/antibacterial

Candle tree is a nice plant with beautiful yellow flowers that's native to Mexico. It's a medicinal tree that has very effective fungicidal properties and is used traditionally to treat fungal infections of the skin. 

Modern studies confirm antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory activity of the tree. According to manufacturer info it's even a great anti-aging plant extract that gives DNA protection from UV rays and supports the natural repairing process of the skin cells. 

Also-called: Horsetail Kelp Extract

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: antioxidant

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: soothing, preservative

Lactobacillus ferment is an interesting probiotic ingredient with some promising properties. 

First, according to a 2009 Estee Lauder patent, it’s a DNA repair enzyme and it can help to protect the skin against environmental aggressors.

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Second, still according to Estee Lauder research but now from 2012 the ingredient has anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties and holds promise in the treatment of acne and rosacea. For the former one 5% was needed to show effectiveness, but for reducing skin sensitivity already 1% showed results. 

The anti-acne effect is confirmed also by US manufacturer, Barnet, that says that Lactobacillus ferment is helpful in killing harmful bacteria and creating a healthy balanced microflora. Compared to well-known anti-acne and anti-inflammatory salicylic acid the probiotic worked faster at reducing the size and redness of acne lesions. 

It also goes by the trade name Leucidal Liquid SF and can serve in the formula as a natural preservative. 

Bottom line: It’s not the most proven ingredient (yet) but definitely a very promising one especially if you have sensitive skin, acne or rosacea.  

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Saccharomyces Ferment Filtrate is the fancy name of a liquidy, almost-water-like stuff that you get by fermenting and filtering yeast. 

According to manufacturer info it’s rich in all kinds of good-for-your-skin things: essential minerals, amino acids, beta-glucan and vitamins. It’s definitely great for skin moisturization and soothing, and might have some skin brightening and wrinkle repair magic activity as well. 

Also-called: Meadowfoam Oil | What-it-does: emollient

The emollient plant oil coming from the seeds of the white flowering plant called meadowfoam.  Meadowfoam Oil has a unique fatty acid composition with 95% of it being long chain fatty acids (eicosenoic acid C20:1 - 61%, docosenoic acid C22:1 - 16% and docosadienoic acid C22:2 - 18%) that make the oil extraordinarily stable. It also contains antioxidant components such as vitamin E as well as phytosterols.

Apart from Meadowfoam Oil's crazy stability, the oil is described as non-greasy, rapidly absorbed and having a similar skin feel to more often used jojoba oil. The oil is ideal for products where a soft, smooth, silky feel is required whether it be on skin or hair.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: emulsion stabilising

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Panthenol - goodie
Also-called: Pro-Vitamin B5 | What-it-does: soothing, moisturizer/humectant | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0

An easy-to-formulate, commonly used, nice to have ingredient that’s also called pro-vitamin B5. As you might guess from the “pro” part, it’s a precursor to vitamin B5 (whose fancy name is pantothenic acid). 

Its main job in skincare products is to moisturise the skin. It’s a humectant meaning that it can help the skin to attract water and then hold onto it. There is also research showing that panthenol can help our skin to produce more lovely lipids that are important for a strong and healthy skin barrier. 

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Another great thing about panthenol is that it has anti-inflammatory and skin protecting abilities. A study shows that it can reduce the irritation caused by less-nice other ingredients (e.g. fragrance, preservatives or chemical sunscreens) in the product.

Research also shows that it might be useful for wound healing as it promotes fibroblast (nice type of cells in our skin that produce skin-firming collagen) proliferation. 

If that wasn’t enough panthenol is also useful in nail and hair care products. A study shows that a nail treatment liquide with 2% panthenol could effectively get into the nail and significantly increase the hydration of it.

As for the hair the hydration effect is also true there. Panthenol might make your hair softer, more elastic and helps to comb your hair more easily. 

A biotechnologically derived ingredient that is produced by the fermentation of a marine bacteria living in the cold Antarctic Ocean. According to the manufacturer's info, it seems to have two different sets of magic properties: 

The first set includes skin-protecting and anti-aging abilities: it can help to protect the skin from dryness and redness due to cold weather and it also promotes skin regeneration and smoother skin surface by stimulating protein synthesis in the skin.  More specifically, these proteins are type I and IV collagen and elastin, all super important stuff for wrinkle-free, young looking skin (though these results came only from in-vitro tests and might or might not apply to living human skin). 

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As for in-vivo (tested on real people) efficacy, 1% Antarcticine (the trade name for the diluted version of the Pseudoalteromonas Ferment Extract) cream increased skin hydration by 14.8% in cold weather and 5% Antarcticine cream decreased the depth of wrinkles by 44% around the eyes.

The second set of magic properties are all about oily skin regulation, such as reducing sebum production, shininess, and pore size. It acts through reducing Melanocortin 5 receptor, a protein important in sebum production. According to the in-vivo tests of the manufacturer, it both immediately reduces skin gloss as well as significantly reduces the number of active follicles and their total surface with ongoing use (by 9.5% and 27.2% after 28 days).

Overall, an interesting, multifunctional ingredient both for anti-aging as well as oily skin control purposes.

Tripeptide-1 - goodie
Also-called: GHK, Kollaren | What-it-does: cell-communicating ingredient

A small, three amino acid (glycine-histidine-lysine or GHK) peptide that is famous for being a type I collagen fragment. The theory behind collagen-fragment peptides is that when collagen naturally breaks down in the skin, the resulting peptide fragments signal to the skin that it should get to work and create some nice, new collagen.

Adding in collagen fragment peptides, like GHK, might trick the skin into thinking that collagen has broken down and it's time to create some more. So Tripeptide-1 is believed to be able to stimulate collagen production in the skin, and more collagen means fewer wrinkles and younger looking skin. FYI; Tripeptide-1 is the same peptide that can be found in the famous Matrixyl 3000, but in Matrixyl a palmitic acid is attached to it to increase its oil solubility and thus skin penetration.

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Another reason why Tripeptide-1 is especially famous is that it is not only a signal peptide but also a so-called carrier peptide that helps to stabilize and deliver copper in the skin. It has a high affinity for copper ions and likes to form a complex with them called Copper-Tripeptide-1 or GHK-Cu. GHK-Cu is a famous and well-researched peptide that does a bunch of things in the skin and we have a shiny explanation about it here

As for Tripeptide-1 in and of itself, without a palmitic acid or copper attached to it, it goes by the trade name Kollaren and according to the manufacturer, it not only stimulates collagen but also other essential skin proteins such as fibronectin, elastin, and laminin. Kollaren is also claimed to be beneficial for acne-prone skin as it can boost tissue repair and thus help acne scars to heal faster. 

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant

A chemically chopped up version of wheat protein that consists mainly of amino acids (the building blocks), peptides (a couple of amino acids together), and proteins (lots of amino acids together). 

It has moisturizing and film-forming properties and  might be able to counteract the irritating effects of cleansing agents in cleansers and shampoos. It can also condition and repair damaged hair leaving it soft, silky and smooth.

What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Cholesterol - goodie

It's one of the important lipids that can be found naturally in the outer layer of the skin. About 25% of the goopy stuff between our skin cells consists of cholesterol. Together with ceramides and fatty acids, they play a vital role in having a healthy skin barrier and keeping the skin hydrated. 

Apart from being an important skin-identical ingredient, it's also an emollient and stabilizer

Also-called: Macadamia Oil | What-it-does: emollient

The golden yellow oil coming from the Macadamia nut, a native Australian nut. Similar to other plant oils, it's loaded with emollient and nourishing fatty acids. It's a high oleic acid oil (50-67% oleic acid and only 0-5% linoleic acid) that makes it very emollient and ideal for dry skin types (and less ideal for acne-prone skin).

Its unique property is that it contains high amounts of a rare fatty acid called palmitoleic acid (12-25%) that give Macadamia oil a "cushiony" feel. It's also easily absorbed and makes the skin soft and supple. 

What-it-does: emollient

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: emollient, emulsifying

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Ubiquinone - goodie
Also-called: Coenzyme Q10 | What-it-does: antioxidant

Thanks to Nivea, Q10 is a pretty well-known ingredient and the fame and Beiersdorf's (the parent company of Nivea) obsession with it are not for no reason. It's an antioxidant found naturally in human cells where it plays a big role in energy production.

In fact, it's so important for energy production that if taken as an oral supplement it has a caffeine-like effect and if taken at night you will probably not sleep very well (so you should take it in the morning). Q10 supplementation is not a bad idea: it not only gives you energy but research also shows that oral Q10 increases the Q10 level of the skin (of course, it decreases with age like pretty much every good thing in the skin) and may help to reduce wrinkles. If you are not for supplements, dietary sources include fish, spinach, and nuts.

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As for skincare, Q10 comes in the form of a yellow, oil-soluble powder that's shown to absorb into the upper layer of the skin and act there like an awesome antioxidant. It not only has preventative effects but might also be able to reduce the depth of wrinkles, though 0.3% Q10 was used in the study that counts as really high (products containing that much should be very yellow!). 

Retinol - superstar
Also-called: Vitamin A, Form of Retinoids | What-it-does: cell-communicating ingredient
  • Retinol (pure Vitamin A) is probably the most proven anti-aging ingredient available OTC
  • Retinol is not itself active, it has to be converted in the skin to retinoic acid to actually do something
  • Once converted it theoretically has the same effect as all-trans-retinoic acid, aka tretinoin
  • A generally accepted ballpark number is that retinol is 10-to-20 times less potent than retinoic acid
  • It makes skin less wrinkled, smoother, firmer and tighter
  • It might also be helpful for acne prone skin as it normalizes keratinization and makes the pores produce less sebum
  • Possible side effects and irritation are also much less than with retinoic acid
  • Do not use whilst pregnant
Read all the geeky details about Retinol here >>

What-it-does: emollient

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Also-called: Form of Vitamin C, SAP | What-it-does: antioxidant, anti-acne

The sodium salt form of skincare superstar, vitamin C. If you do not know what the big fuss about vitamin C is, you are missing out and you have to click here and read all the geeky details about it.

Pure vitamin C (aka ascorbic acid, AA) is great and all, but its lack of stability is a big challenge for the cosmetics industry. One solution is to create stable derivatives that can be absorbed into the skin, convert there to AA and do all the magic AA is proven to do (which is being an antioxidant, a collagen booster, and a skin brightener).

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SAP (the vit C derivative, not the enterprise software, obvs) is a promising derivative that has great stability up to pH 7. The challenge with it though is skin penetration. Unfortunately, it seems to be limited, or to quote a great article from the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology "topically applied ascorbyl phosphate salts are, at very best, poorly absorbed in comparison with AA". Regarding conversion to AA, there seems to be no data about it, so we can neither deny nor confirm it.

We have better news regarding the three magic abilities of vitamin C: there is in-vivo (tested on real people) data showing that SAP does have photo-protective (aka antioxidant) properties, though less than pure AA. SAP might also aid collagen boosting; in-vitro (made in the lab) data shows that it works, but is less effective than another vitamin C derivative, called MAP (that seems to be as effective as pure AA). As for skin-brightening, there is a trade publication with in-vivo data showing that SAP can fade brown spots

Another thing SAP might be able to do is to help with acne. A 2005 study showed in vitro (in test tubes) that 1% SAP has a strong antimicrobial activity on evil acne causing P. acnes and it also showed in vivo (on real people) that 5% SAP can strongly improve the inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions of acne vulgaris. In fact, the results were comparable or even slightly better than with 5% benzoyl peroxide. 

And there is even more regarding SAP and acne. A nice double-blind study from 2009 showed that  5% SAP reduced the inflammatory lesions by 20.14% and 48.82% within 4 and 8 weeks respectively and when combined with 0.2% retinol the results were even better. With this combination treatment, the improvement was 29.28% after 4 weeks and 63.10% after 8 weeks of application. 

Aside from research studies, anecdotal evidence also supports SAP being a promising vitamin C derivative. One of the best-selling (vitamin C) serums in Sephora is the Ole Henriksen Truth Serum, while on Amazon it's the OzNaturals Vitamin C 20 Serum. Another popular choice is the Mad Hippie Vitamin C serum, and all of these contain vitamin C in the form of SAP. 

Overall, we think SAP is a goody!  In terms of anti-aging, it's probably not as effective as pure Ascorbic Acid, but it's totally worth a try. However, if your skin is acne-prone, SAP is your form of Vitamin C and it's a must-try.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Also-called: Vitamin H

Also called vitamin H, biotin is the main component of many enzymes in our body. A nice ingredient to take as a supplement for stronger nails and hair. When you do not take it as a supplement its effects are a bit more questionable but according to manufacturer info it can smooth the skin and strengthen the hair.

Also-called: Amaranth Seed Extract | What-it-does: emollient

It's the seed extract of a plant called amaranth or love-lies-bleeding.  It's a really ancient plant grown by Aztecs, Incas and Mayas as their main food and they called it “the golden grain”. They believed it had supernatural powers. Nowadays it's a popular health food because the seeds have great nutritional benefits and are high in protein.

As for skincare there are two types of the seed extract: 

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1, The aqueous extract contains a high concentration of peptides and polysaccharides and helps to improve the combability and manageability of damaged hair

2. The oily extract is more common and acts as other similar emollient plant oils. It's rich in non-saturated fatty acids (linoleic acid/omega-6 and oleic acid/omega-9) and squalene and is a great moisturizer and emollient for both skin and hair. 

Also-called: Argireline, Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 | What-it-does: cell-communicating ingredient, moisturizer/humectant

If you see a cosmetic product that claims that it has "Botox-like effect" then two things are almost certain: one, the product overpromises and two, it contains Argireline. 

So this one is the famous peptide that's marketed by its manufacturer as the "Botox in a jar". The basis for this claim is that it targets the same wrinkle forming mechanism (wrinkles caused by facial muscle movement) as Botox, but the way it works is very different. In addition, the extent to which it can prevent muscles from contracting (and to smooth wrinkles) is very different (otherwise why would anyone use still Botox?). 

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The manufacturer did several studies to prove that Argireline really works and it does (just not as well as Botox). In-vivo (made on real people) tests showed that using 10% Argireline solution around the eyes for 15 days decreased wrinkles depth by 17%. A Spanish University also did some research and found that Argireline increased the level of skin moisturization and decreased both the depth and width of wrinkles "significantly". 

This means, Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 does have some ability to smooth wrinkles (but not as well as Botox - sorry, if we sound like a broken record). Also, we have to agree with TruthInAging, that it's not a collagen builder and not a preventer of structural aging (think vitamin C, AHAs or retinol); it's just a quick fix. If you are looking for one, this could be your thing. If you are more of a "let's treat this aging thing properly" type, then it's probably not your thing.

Also-called: GHK-Cu | What-it-does: cell-communicating ingredient, soothing, antioxidant
  • GHK-Cu is a copper-peptide complex found naturally in yucky bodily fluids (plasma, saliva, and urine)
  • It has unique wound healing properties by stimulating the breakdown of unhealthy, too large collagen in scar tissue and stimulating nice and healthy collagen production afterwards
  • It stimulates the production of several important skin-identical ingredients (e.g. collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans)
  • It has significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect
  • There are a few promising studies showing GHK-Cu can improve skin elasticity, clarity, firmness and reduce lines and wrinkles
  • It can improve hair growth by enlarging hair follicles (and bigger follicles produce longer, thicker hair)
  • There are some urban legends about possible overdosing or facial hair problems (read more in geeky details)
Read all the geeky details about Copper Tripeptide-1 here >>

What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant, solvent | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 1

Butylene glycol, or let’s just call it BG, is a multi-tasking colorless, syrupy liquid. It’s a great pick for creating a nice feeling product.  

BG’s main job is usually to be a solvent for the other ingredients. Other tasks include helping the product to absorb faster and deeper into the skin (penetration enhancer), making the product spread nicely over the skin (slip agent), and attracting water (humectant) into the skin.

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It’s an ingredient whose safety hasn’t been questioned so far by anyone (at least not that we know about). BG is approved by Ecocert and is also used enthusiastically in natural products. BTW, it’s also a food additive. 

What-it-does: emulsifying

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

A castor oil derived, white, lard-like helper ingredient that is used as a solubilizer to put fragrances (those are oil loving things) into water-based products such as toners.

A mildly viscous, amber-colored liquid with fatty odor, made from Castor Oil and polyethylene glycol (PEG).

If it were a person, we’d say, it’s agile, diligent & multifunctional. It’s mostly used as an emulsifier and surfactant but most often it is used to solubilize fragrances into water-based formulas.

A helper ingredient that usually comes to the formula coupled with PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil. The two together work as surfactants and oil solubilizers. It's a non-sticky duo that works at low concentration and is often used to solubilize fragrance components into water-based formulas.

What-it-does: chelating

A so-called chelating agent that helps to preserve cosmetic products by neutralizing the metal ions (especially iron) in the formula (that usually get into there from water). Its special thing is that it also acts as a biostatic and fungistatic agent and remains active even at high pH.

It is often coupled with antimicrobial glycols (such as propanediol) to create a "preservative free preservative system" for cosmetic products.

What-it-does: viscosity controlling

It’s a handy white powder that magically converts a product into a nice gel formula. If you see gel in the name of a moisturiser type thing, chances are carbomer will be in the ingredient list. 

It’s not too common, but sometimes there is also a number after it. The reason for it is that carbomer in itself actually refers to a group of stuff and the number shows the weight and type of the molecule. 

What-it-does: buffering, emulsifying, surfactant/cleansing | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 2

It’s a little helper ingredient that helps to set the pH of a cosmetic formulation to be just right. It’s very alkaline (you know the opposite of being very acidic): a 1% solution has a pH of around 10.

It does not have the very best safety reputation but in general, you do not have to worry about it. 

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What is true is that if a product contains so-called N-nitrogenating agents (e.g.: preservatives like 2-Bromo-2-Nitropropane-1,3-Diol, 5-Bromo-5-Nitro- 1,3-Dioxane or sodium nitrate - so look out for things with nitro, nitra in the name) that together with TEA can form some not nice carcinogenic stuff (that is called nitrosamines). But with proper formulation that does not happen, TEA in itself is not a bad guy. 

But let’s assume a bad combination of ingredients were used and the nitrosamines formed. :( Even in that case you are probably fine because as far as we know it cannot penetrate the skin. 

But to be on the safe side, if you see Triethanolamine in an INCI and also something with nitra, nitro in the name of it just skip the product, that cannot hurt.

What-it-does: emollient, solvent

A super commonly used 5 unit long, cyclic structured silicone that is water-thin and does not stay on the skin but evaporates from it (called volatile silicone). Similar to other silicones, it gives skin and hair a silky, smooth feel

It's often combined with the non-volatile (aka stays on the skin) dimethicone as the two together form a water-resistant, breathable protective barrier on the skin without a negative tacky feel.

What-it-does: emollient | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 1

Probably the cheapest and most common silicone of all. It is a polymer (created from repeating subunits) molecule and has different molecular weight and thus different viscosity versions from water-light to thick liquid.

As for skincare, it makes the skin silky smooth, creates a subtle gloss and forms a protective barrier. Also, works well to fill in fine lines and wrinkles and give skin a plump look (of course that is only temporary, but still, it's nice). There are also scar treatment gels out there using dimethicone as their base ingredient. It helps to soften scars and increase their elasticity. 

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As for hair care, it is a non-volatile silicone meaning that it stays on the hair rather than evaporates from it and smoothes the hair like no other thing. Depending on your hair type, it can be a bit difficult to wash out and might cause some build-up (btw, this is not true to all silicones, only the non-volatile types). 

It's a silicone that is water dispersible (as opposed to most other silicones that are usually oil dispersible). It makes the skin smooth and nice (emollient), moisturizes, helps to reduce tackiness, and also has some foam boosting properties. Often used in light, watery formulas to give them extra silky feel

It's one of the most commonly used thickeners and emulsion stabilizers. If the product is too runny, a little of xanthan gum will help make it more gel-like.  Used alone, it can make the formula sticky so it is usually combined with other thickeners and so-called rheology modifiers (helper ingredients that adjust the flow and thus the feel of the formula). 

Btw, Xanthan gum is all natural, a chain of sugar molecules (polysaccharide) produced from individual sugar molecules called glucose and sucrose. It’s approved by Ecocert and also used in the food industry (E415). 

A clear, colorless liquid that works as a solvent and viscosity decreasing ingredient. 

What-it-does: emollient, emulsifying

It's the chemically chopped up version of normal lecithin. Most often it's used to create liposomes and to coat and stabilize other ingredients. 

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

A little helper ingredient that can be a thickener, a humectant, a foam booster, an adhesion promoter and a filler. It's a blend of polysaccharides that helps to moisturize and soften the skin. 

What-it-does: emollient

A clear, slightly yellow, odorless oil  that's a very common, medium-spreading emollient. It makes the skin feel nice and smooth and works in a wide range of formulas.

What-it-does: viscosity controlling

A white, elastomeric silicone powder that gives a nice silky and powdery feel to the products. It also has some oil and sebum absorption capabilities. 

Cyclomethicone is not one type of silicone, but a whole mixture of them: it's a mix of specific chain length (4 to 7) cyclic structured silicone molecules. (There seems to be a confusion on the internet whether Cyclomethicone and Cyclopentasiloxane are the same. They are not the same, but Cyclopentasiloxane is part of the mixture that makes up Cyclomethicone). 

All the silicones in the Cyclomethicone mixture are volatile, meaning they evaporate from the skin or hair rather than stay on it. This means that Cyclomethicone has a light skin feel with none-to-minimal after-feel.  It also makes the formulas easy to spread and has nice emollient properties.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant, solvent, viscosity controlling | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0
  • It's a helper ingredient that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products
  • It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer
  • It has a bad reputation among natural cosmetics advocates but cosmetic scientists and toxicology experts do not agree (read more in the geeky details section)
Read all the geeky details about Propylene Glycol here >>

A thick, high molecular weight silicone that is usually diluted in another, lighter silicone fluid (like dimethicone or cyclopentasiloxane). The dimethiconol containing silicone blends leave a silky smooth, non-greasy film on the skin.

What-it-does: emollient

A very common emollient that makes your skin feel nice and smooth. It comes from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s light-textured, clear, odorless and non-greasy. It’s a nice ingredient that just feels good on the skin, and it’s also easy to formulate with. No wonder it’s popular. 

What-it-does: emulsifying, surfactant/cleansing | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0

It's a common little helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix together. Also, it can help to increase the solubility of some other ingredients in the formula. 

What-it-does: emollient, emulsifying

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: surfactant/cleansing

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

A white to beige powder that helps oil and water to mix nicely together (aka oil in water emulsifier). It is a good emulsifier choice for stable water-resistant sunscreen formulas.

Lecithin - goodie
What-it-does: emollient, emulsifying

A very common ingredient that can be found in all cell membranes. In cosmetics it's quite the multi-tasker: it's an emollient and water-binding ingredient but it's also an emulsifier and can be used for stabilization purposes. It's also often used to create liposomes

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

A white powdery thing that's the major component of glass and sand. In cosmetics, it’s often in products that are supposed to keep your skin matte as it has great oil-absorbing abilities. Sometimes it’s also used as a helper ingredient to thicken up products

Super common little helper ingredient that helps products to remain nice and stable for a longer time. It does so by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula (that usually get into there from water) that would otherwise cause some not so nice changes.

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