DTRT Skin Saver Ceramidin Cream
DTRT

Skin Saver Ceramidin Cream

Skin Saver Ceramidin Cream is formulated with ceramides 3 which are natural components of human skin. Ceramides create a barrier which reduces moisture loss and helps to maintain skin’s optimal [more] [more] moisture and oil balance. By retaining the skin’s moisture, it helps skin recover lost firmness and elasticity. [less]
Uploaded by: cannonlev on 23/08/2018

Ingredients overview

Water
what‑it‑does solvent
Normal (well kind of - it's purified and deionized) water. Usually the main solvent in cosmetic products. [more]
,
Glycerin
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
A real oldie but a goodie. Great natural moisturizer and skin-identical ingredient that plays an important role in skin hydration and general skin health. [more]
,
Dipropylene Glycol
what‑it‑does solvent | viscosity controlling
A clear, colorless liquid that works as a solvent and viscosity decreasing ingredient. 
,
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
what‑it‑does emollient
A very common emollient that makes your skin feel nice and smooth. Comes from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s light-textured, clear, odorless and non-greasy. [more]
,
Hydrogenated Poly(C6-14 Olefin)
what‑it‑does emollient | viscosity controlling
,
Hydrogenated Polydecene
what‑it‑does emollient
A hydrocarbon-based emollient that can come in different viscosities from silky-light to luxurious, rich. It forms a non-occlusive film on the surface of the skin. [more]
,
Cetearyl Alcohol
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying | viscosity controlling | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 1 2
A common multitasker ingredient that gives your skin a nice soft feel (emollient). It also helps water and oil to blend (emulsifier) and to thicken up products. [more]
,
1,2-Hexanediol
what‑it‑does solvent
A multi-functional helper ingredient that acts as a humectant and emollient. It's also a solvent and can boost the effectiveness of preservatives. [more]
,
Dimethicone
what‑it‑does emollient
irritancy, com. 0 1
A very common silicone that gives both skin and hair a silky smooth feel. It also forms a protective barrier on the skin and fills in fine lines. Also used for scar treatment. [more]
, [more]
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
Vegetable Oil
what‑it‑does emollient
,
Bifida Ferment Lysate
A probiotic ingredient that might protect against UV-induced damage, help barrier repair and decrease skin sensitivity. [more]
,
Glyceryl Stearate Se
what‑it‑does emulsifying
irritancy, com. 2 3
An oily ingredient that can magically blend with water all by itself (called Self Emulsifying). Other than that it’s a nice emollient that gives a smooth and soft appearance to the skin. [more]
,
Dimethiconol
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
A thick, high molecular weight silicone that is usually diluted in a lighter silicone fluid. The dimethiconol containing silicone blends leave a silky smooth, non-greasy film on the skin. [more]
,
Cyclopentasiloxane
what‑it‑does emollient | solvent
It's a super commonly used water-thin volatile silicone that gives skin and hair a silky, smooth feel.  [more]
,
Ulmus Davidiana Root Extract
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
A sugar-rich plant extract that is a great skin moisturizer and has also promising anti-inflammatory and photoprotective properties. [more]
,
Amaranthus Caudatus Seed Extract
what‑it‑does emollient
It's the seed extract of the popular health food, amaranth. The oily extract works as a great emollient, moisturizing plant oil for skin and hair. [more]
,
Piper Methysticum Leaf/Root/Stem Extract
Kava kava extract - has some analgesic (painkiller) properties but might also cause skin irritation. [more]
,
Beta Vulgaris (Beet) Root Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant | moisturizer/humectant
Beetroot is a natural moisturizer, colorant, and antioxidant. [more]
,
Algae Extract
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
An extract that comes from one or more of the 20 000 kinds of algae out there. In general algae extracts serve as moisturizing, emollient and thickening agents, and many of them also have additional anti-aging properties. [more]
,
Artemisia Vulgaris Extract, Portulaca Oleracea Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antioxidant
Purslane Extract - a traditional Korean medicinal plant with skin-soothing, antioxidant and wound healing abilities. [more]
,
Pueraria Thunbergiana Root Extract, Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | skin brightening
You might know licorice as a sweet treat from your childhood, but it's actually a legume that grows around the Mediterranean Sea, the Middle East, central and southern Russia. [more]
,
Paeonia Lactiflora Root Extract, Cnidium Officinale Root Extract, Hydrogenated Lecithin
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
It's the chemically chopped up version of normal lecithin. Most often it's used to create liposomes and to coat and stabilize some other ingredient. 
,
Sodium Hyaluronate
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
It's the salt form of famous humectant and natural moisturizing factor, hyaluronic acid. It can bind huge amounts of water and it's pretty much the current IT-moisturizer. [more]
,
Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil
what‑it‑does perfuming
The essential oil coming from the fruit (probably the rind) of the bergamot orange.  It's a common top note in perfumes and contains (among others) fragrant compounds limonene (37%), linalyl acetate (30%) and linalool (8.8%). A well-known issue with bergamot oil (apart from the fragrance allergens) is that it contains phototoxic  [more]
,
Soluble Collagen
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
Soluble Collagen refers to the big, natural collagen molecules mostly extracted from fish or bovine skin. Spotting collagen on the ingredient list, you might think that, aha, this must be there to supplement the collagen content of our own skin, but you have to know that collagen is a huge-huge molecule  [more]
,
Pelargonium Graveolens Flower Oil
what‑it‑does perfuming
The essential oil coming from the flowers of Rose Geranium. Like most essential oils, it contains antioxidant and antimicrobial components, but the main ones are fragrant constituents. [more]
,
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
The famous aloe vera. A great moisturizer and anti-inflammatory ingredient that also helps wound healing and skin regeneration. [more]
,
Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Oil, Pogostemon Cablin Oil
what‑it‑does perfuming
Patchouli essential oil that has a woody, earthy and camphoraceous scent and also has fixative properties. Also has fixative and antifungal properties. [more]
,
Cetearyl Glucoside
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A sugar based emulsifier that's especially great for low viscosity lotions or even sprays. [more]
,
Cetearyl Olivate
what‑it‑does emulsifying
An ester that comes from Cetearyl alcohol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It often comes to the formula coupled with Sorbitan Olivate and the two together help water and oil to blend (emulsifier). It's a natural and Ecocert approved duo.
,
Sorbitan Olivate
what‑it‑does emulsifying
An ester coming from sorbitol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It often comes to the formula coupled with Cetearyl Olivate and the two together help water and oil to blend (emulsifier). It's a natural and Ecocert approved duo.
,
C12-16 Alcohols
what‑it‑does emollient | viscosity controlling
,
Ceramide 3
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient
Ceramides make up 50% of the goopy stuff that's between our skin cells and play a super important role in having a healthy skin barrier and keeping the skin hydrated.  [more]
,
Microcrystalline Cellulose
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A smaller version of the natural, cell-wall building polymer cellulose. Mostly used as a mattifier or a helper ingredient that improves the skin feel of the formula. [more]
,
Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A helper ingredient that's good at stabilizing water-based formulas and also serves as a thickener. It's especially recommended for low pH products, like exfoliants.
,
Squalane
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient
irritancy, com. 0 1
An emollient and natural moisturizer that can be found also in the sebum (oily stuff our skin produces). It leaves a nice non-greasy, non-heavy feeling on the skin. [more]
,
Glyceryl Stearate
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
Waxy, white, solid stuff that helps water and oil to mix together and leaves the skin feeling soft and smooth. [more]
,
Peg-100 Stearate
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying
irritancy, com. 0 1
A commonly used water-soluble surfactant and emulsifier. [more]
,
Hydrolyzed Corn Starch
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | viscosity controlling
Chemically chopped up version of corn starch - helps to keep formulas together (binding), and improves foam quality. It's also a skin moisturizer. [more]
,
Palmitic Acid
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient | emulsifying
irritancy, com. 0 2
A fatty acid that can be found naturally in the skin. It can make the skin feel nice and smooth in moisturizers (emollient) or it can act as a foam building cleansing agent in cleansers. [more]
,
Coco-Caprylate/Caprate
what‑it‑does emollient
An emollient ester that leaves a silky finish on the skin and increases the hydrating power of the formula. [more]
,
Polysorbate 60
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A common little helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix together, aka emulsifier.
,
Caramel
what‑it‑does colorant
The caramel in cosmetics is pretty much the same one that you know from the kitchen. It is derived by controlled heat treatment of food-grade carbohydrates (sugars) and works as a brown colorant.  [more]
,
Cellulose Gum
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A cellulose (the big molecule found in the cell wall of green plants) derivative that is used as an emulsion stabilizer and thickener. 
,
Propylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
irritancy, com. 0 0
A common glycol that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products. It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer. [more]
,
Butylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent
irritancy, com. 0 1
An often used glycol that works as a solvent, humectant, penetration enhancer and also gives a good slip to the products. [more]
,
Disodium Edta
what‑it‑does chelating
Super common little helper ingredient that helps products to remain nice and stable for a longer time. It does so by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula (that usually get into there from water) that would otherwise cause some not so nice changes. [more]
,
Panthenol
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
Pro-Vitamin B5 is a goodie that moisturises the skin, has anti-inflammatory, skin protecting and wound healing properties. [more]
,
Acacia Senegal Gum
A natural polymer (big molecules from repeated subunits) that is harvested from the Acacia tree in the sub-Saharan region in Africa. It's a great thickening and binding agent. [more]
,
Folic Acid, Acetic Acid
what‑it‑does buffering
The acid found in vinegar. Can be a skin irritant and drying in larger amounts but in tiny amounts, it's used to set the pH of the cosmetic formula. Has also some disinfecting properties.
,
Cholesterol
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient
It's one of the important lipids that can be found naturally in the outer layer of the skin. About 25% of the goopy stuff between our skin cells consists of cholesterol. [more]
,
Raffinose
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
It's a so-called trisaccharide (consists of three monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose) that - similar to other sugar-type ingredients - works as a water-binding, moisturizer ingredient on the skin. 
,
Lactic Acid
what‑it‑does exfoliant | moisturizer/humectant
A superstar AHA that not only exfoliates skin but is also a very good moisturizer. In higher concentration (10% and up) it can even improve skin firmness, thickness, and wrinkles. [more]
,
Xanthan Gum
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A super commonly used thickener and emulsion stabilizer. [more]
,
Tromethamine
what‑it‑does buffering
It's a little helper ingredient that helps to set the pH of the products to be right. It has an alkaline pH and can neutralize acidic ingredients.
,
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient
Matrixyl - A 5 amino acid peptide with promising research showing that it can reduce fine lines, wrinkles and improve skin texture. [more]
[less]
Water,Glycerin,Dipropylene Glycol,Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride,Hydrogenated Poly(C6-14 Olefin),Hydrogenated Polydecene,Cetearyl Alcohol,1,2-Hexanediol,Dimethicone,Cyclomethicone,Vegetable Oil,Bifida Ferment Lysate,Glyceryl Stearate Se,Dimethiconol,Cyclopentasiloxane,Ulmus Davidiana Root Extract,Amaranthus Caudatus Seed Extract,Piper Methysticum Leaf/Root/Stem Extract,Beta Vulgaris (Beet) Root Extract,Algae Extract,Artemisia Vulgaris Extract,Portulaca Oleracea Extract,Pueraria Thunbergiana Root Extract,Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract,Paeonia Lactiflora Root Extract,Cnidium Officinale Root Extract,Hydrogenated Lecithin,Sodium Hyaluronate,Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil,Soluble Collagen,Pelargonium Graveolens Flower Oil,Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Oil,Pogostemon Cablin Oil,Cetearyl Glucoside,Cetearyl Olivate,Sorbitan Olivate,C12-16 Alcohols,Ceramide 3,Microcrystalline Cellulose,Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer,Squalane,Glyceryl Stearate,Peg-100 Stearate,Hydrolyzed Corn Starch,Palmitic Acid,Coco-Caprylate/Caprate,Polysorbate 60,Caramel,Cellulose Gum,Propylene Glycol,Butylene Glycol,Disodium Edta,Panthenol,Acacia Senegal Gum,Folic Acid,Acetic Acid,Cholesterol,Raffinose,Lactic Acid,Xanthan Gum,Tromethamine,Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4

Highlights

Key Ingredients

Antioxidant: Beta Vulgaris (Beet) Root Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant | moisturizer/humectant
Beetroot is a natural moisturizer, colorant, and antioxidant. [more]
,
Portulaca Oleracea Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antioxidant
Purslane Extract - a traditional Korean medicinal plant with skin-soothing, antioxidant and wound healing abilities. [more]
Cell-communicating ingredient: Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4
what‑it‑does cell-communicating ingredient
Matrixyl - A 5 amino acid peptide with promising research showing that it can reduce fine lines, wrinkles and improve skin texture. [more]
Exfoliant: Lactic Acid
what‑it‑does exfoliant | moisturizer/humectant
A superstar AHA that not only exfoliates skin but is also a very good moisturizer. In higher concentration (10% and up) it can even improve skin firmness, thickness, and wrinkles. [more]
Skin brightening: Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | skin brightening
You might know licorice as a sweet treat from your childhood, but it's actually a legume that grows around the Mediterranean Sea, the Middle East, central and southern Russia. [more]
Skin-identical ingredient: Glycerin
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
A real oldie but a goodie. Great natural moisturizer and skin-identical ingredient that plays an important role in skin hydration and general skin health. [more]
,
Sodium Hyaluronate
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
It's the salt form of famous humectant and natural moisturizing factor, hyaluronic acid. It can bind huge amounts of water and it's pretty much the current IT-moisturizer. [more]
,
Ceramide 3
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient
Ceramides make up 50% of the goopy stuff that's between our skin cells and play a super important role in having a healthy skin barrier and keeping the skin hydrated.  [more]
,
Squalane
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient
irritancy, com. 0 1
An emollient and natural moisturizer that can be found also in the sebum (oily stuff our skin produces). It leaves a nice non-greasy, non-heavy feeling on the skin. [more]
,
Cholesterol
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient
It's one of the important lipids that can be found naturally in the outer layer of the skin. About 25% of the goopy stuff between our skin cells consists of cholesterol. [more]
Soothing: Portulaca Oleracea Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | antioxidant
Purslane Extract - a traditional Korean medicinal plant with skin-soothing, antioxidant and wound healing abilities. [more]
,
Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract
what‑it‑does soothing | skin brightening
You might know licorice as a sweet treat from your childhood, but it's actually a legume that grows around the Mediterranean Sea, the Middle East, central and southern Russia. [more]
,
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
The famous aloe vera. A great moisturizer and anti-inflammatory ingredient that also helps wound healing and skin regeneration. [more]
,
Panthenol
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
Pro-Vitamin B5 is a goodie that moisturises the skin, has anti-inflammatory, skin protecting and wound healing properties. [more]

Show all ingredients by function

Other Ingredients

Buffering: Acetic Acid
what‑it‑does buffering
The acid found in vinegar. Can be a skin irritant and drying in larger amounts but in tiny amounts, it's used to set the pH of the cosmetic formula. Has also some disinfecting properties.
,
Tromethamine
what‑it‑does buffering
It's a little helper ingredient that helps to set the pH of the products to be right. It has an alkaline pH and can neutralize acidic ingredients.
Chelating: Disodium Edta
what‑it‑does chelating
Super common little helper ingredient that helps products to remain nice and stable for a longer time. It does so by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula (that usually get into there from water) that would otherwise cause some not so nice changes. [more]
Colorant: Caramel
what‑it‑does colorant
The caramel in cosmetics is pretty much the same one that you know from the kitchen. It is derived by controlled heat treatment of food-grade carbohydrates (sugars) and works as a brown colorant.  [more]
Emollient: Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
what‑it‑does emollient
A very common emollient that makes your skin feel nice and smooth. Comes from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s light-textured, clear, odorless and non-greasy. [more]
,
Hydrogenated Poly(C6-14 Olefin)
what‑it‑does emollient | viscosity controlling
,
Hydrogenated Polydecene
what‑it‑does emollient
A hydrocarbon-based emollient that can come in different viscosities from silky-light to luxurious, rich. It forms a non-occlusive film on the surface of the skin. [more]
,
Cetearyl Alcohol
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying | viscosity controlling | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 1 2
A common multitasker ingredient that gives your skin a nice soft feel (emollient). It also helps water and oil to blend (emulsifier) and to thicken up products. [more]
,
Dimethicone
what‑it‑does emollient
irritancy, com. 0 1
A very common silicone that gives both skin and hair a silky smooth feel. It also forms a protective barrier on the skin and fills in fine lines. Also used for scar treatment. [more]
,
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
Vegetable Oil
what‑it‑does emollient
,
Dimethiconol
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
A thick, high molecular weight silicone that is usually diluted in a lighter silicone fluid. The dimethiconol containing silicone blends leave a silky smooth, non-greasy film on the skin. [more]
,
Cyclopentasiloxane
what‑it‑does emollient | solvent
It's a super commonly used water-thin volatile silicone that gives skin and hair a silky, smooth feel.  [more]
,
Amaranthus Caudatus Seed Extract
what‑it‑does emollient
It's the seed extract of the popular health food, amaranth. The oily extract works as a great emollient, moisturizing plant oil for skin and hair. [more]
,
Algae Extract
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
An extract that comes from one or more of the 20 000 kinds of algae out there. In general algae extracts serve as moisturizing, emollient and thickening agents, and many of them also have additional anti-aging properties. [more]
,
Hydrogenated Lecithin
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
It's the chemically chopped up version of normal lecithin. Most often it's used to create liposomes and to coat and stabilize some other ingredient. 
,
C12-16 Alcohols
what‑it‑does emollient | viscosity controlling
,
Squalane
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient
irritancy, com. 0 1
An emollient and natural moisturizer that can be found also in the sebum (oily stuff our skin produces). It leaves a nice non-greasy, non-heavy feeling on the skin. [more]
,
Glyceryl Stearate
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
Waxy, white, solid stuff that helps water and oil to mix together and leaves the skin feeling soft and smooth. [more]
,
Palmitic Acid
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient | emulsifying
irritancy, com. 0 2
A fatty acid that can be found naturally in the skin. It can make the skin feel nice and smooth in moisturizers (emollient) or it can act as a foam building cleansing agent in cleansers. [more]
,
Coco-Caprylate/Caprate
what‑it‑does emollient
An emollient ester that leaves a silky finish on the skin and increases the hydrating power of the formula. [more]
,
Cholesterol
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient
It's one of the important lipids that can be found naturally in the outer layer of the skin. About 25% of the goopy stuff between our skin cells consists of cholesterol. [more]
Emulsifying: Cetearyl Alcohol
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying | viscosity controlling | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 1 2
A common multitasker ingredient that gives your skin a nice soft feel (emollient). It also helps water and oil to blend (emulsifier) and to thicken up products. [more]
,
Glyceryl Stearate Se
what‑it‑does emulsifying
irritancy, com. 2 3
An oily ingredient that can magically blend with water all by itself (called Self Emulsifying). Other than that it’s a nice emollient that gives a smooth and soft appearance to the skin. [more]
,
Hydrogenated Lecithin
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
It's the chemically chopped up version of normal lecithin. Most often it's used to create liposomes and to coat and stabilize some other ingredient. 
,
Cetearyl Glucoside
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A sugar based emulsifier that's especially great for low viscosity lotions or even sprays. [more]
,
Cetearyl Olivate
what‑it‑does emulsifying
An ester that comes from Cetearyl alcohol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It often comes to the formula coupled with Sorbitan Olivate and the two together help water and oil to blend (emulsifier). It's a natural and Ecocert approved duo.
,
Sorbitan Olivate
what‑it‑does emulsifying
An ester coming from sorbitol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It often comes to the formula coupled with Cetearyl Olivate and the two together help water and oil to blend (emulsifier). It's a natural and Ecocert approved duo.
,
Glyceryl Stearate
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying
Waxy, white, solid stuff that helps water and oil to mix together and leaves the skin feeling soft and smooth. [more]
,
Peg-100 Stearate
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying
irritancy, com. 0 1
A commonly used water-soluble surfactant and emulsifier. [more]
,
Palmitic Acid
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient | emulsifying
irritancy, com. 0 2
A fatty acid that can be found naturally in the skin. It can make the skin feel nice and smooth in moisturizers (emollient) or it can act as a foam building cleansing agent in cleansers. [more]
,
Polysorbate 60
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A common little helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix together, aka emulsifier.
Moisturizer/humectant: Glycerin
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
A real oldie but a goodie. Great natural moisturizer and skin-identical ingredient that plays an important role in skin hydration and general skin health. [more]
,
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
Dimethiconol
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
A thick, high molecular weight silicone that is usually diluted in a lighter silicone fluid. The dimethiconol containing silicone blends leave a silky smooth, non-greasy film on the skin. [more]
,
Ulmus Davidiana Root Extract
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
A sugar-rich plant extract that is a great skin moisturizer and has also promising anti-inflammatory and photoprotective properties. [more]
,
Beta Vulgaris (Beet) Root Extract
what‑it‑does antioxidant | moisturizer/humectant
Beetroot is a natural moisturizer, colorant, and antioxidant. [more]
,
Algae Extract
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant
An extract that comes from one or more of the 20 000 kinds of algae out there. In general algae extracts serve as moisturizing, emollient and thickening agents, and many of them also have additional anti-aging properties. [more]
,
Sodium Hyaluronate
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
It's the salt form of famous humectant and natural moisturizing factor, hyaluronic acid. It can bind huge amounts of water and it's pretty much the current IT-moisturizer. [more]
,
Soluble Collagen
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
Soluble Collagen refers to the big, natural collagen molecules mostly extracted from fish or bovine skin. Spotting collagen on the ingredient list, you might think that, aha, this must be there to supplement the collagen content of our own skin, but you have to know that collagen is a huge-huge molecule  [more]
,
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
The famous aloe vera. A great moisturizer and anti-inflammatory ingredient that also helps wound healing and skin regeneration. [more]
,
Hydrolyzed Corn Starch
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | viscosity controlling
Chemically chopped up version of corn starch - helps to keep formulas together (binding), and improves foam quality. It's also a skin moisturizer. [more]
,
Propylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
irritancy, com. 0 0
A common glycol that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products. It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer. [more]
,
Butylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent
irritancy, com. 0 1
An often used glycol that works as a solvent, humectant, penetration enhancer and also gives a good slip to the products. [more]
,
Panthenol
what‑it‑does soothing | moisturizer/humectant
irritancy, com. 0 0
Pro-Vitamin B5 is a goodie that moisturises the skin, has anti-inflammatory, skin protecting and wound healing properties. [more]
,
Raffinose
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant
It's a so-called trisaccharide (consists of three monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose) that - similar to other sugar-type ingredients - works as a water-binding, moisturizer ingredient on the skin. 
,
Lactic Acid
what‑it‑does exfoliant | moisturizer/humectant
A superstar AHA that not only exfoliates skin but is also a very good moisturizer. In higher concentration (10% and up) it can even improve skin firmness, thickness, and wrinkles. [more]
Perfuming: Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil
what‑it‑does perfuming
The essential oil coming from the fruit (probably the rind) of the bergamot orange.  It's a common top note in perfumes and contains (among others) fragrant compounds limonene (37%), linalyl acetate (30%) and linalool (8.8%). A well-known issue with bergamot oil (apart from the fragrance allergens) is that it contains phototoxic  [more]
,
Pelargonium Graveolens Flower Oil
what‑it‑does perfuming
The essential oil coming from the flowers of Rose Geranium. Like most essential oils, it contains antioxidant and antimicrobial components, but the main ones are fragrant constituents. [more]
,
Pogostemon Cablin Oil
what‑it‑does perfuming
Patchouli essential oil that has a woody, earthy and camphoraceous scent and also has fixative properties. Also has fixative and antifungal properties. [more]
Skin-identical ingredient: Palmitic Acid
what‑it‑does skin-identical ingredient | emollient | emulsifying
irritancy, com. 0 2
A fatty acid that can be found naturally in the skin. It can make the skin feel nice and smooth in moisturizers (emollient) or it can act as a foam building cleansing agent in cleansers. [more]
Solvent: Water
what‑it‑does solvent
Normal (well kind of - it's purified and deionized) water. Usually the main solvent in cosmetic products. [more]
,
Dipropylene Glycol
what‑it‑does solvent | viscosity controlling
A clear, colorless liquid that works as a solvent and viscosity decreasing ingredient. 
,
1,2-Hexanediol
what‑it‑does solvent
A multi-functional helper ingredient that acts as a humectant and emollient. It's also a solvent and can boost the effectiveness of preservatives. [more]
,
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
Cyclopentasiloxane
what‑it‑does emollient | solvent
It's a super commonly used water-thin volatile silicone that gives skin and hair a silky, smooth feel.  [more]
,
Propylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
irritancy, com. 0 0
A common glycol that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products. It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer. [more]
,
Butylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent
irritancy, com. 0 1
An often used glycol that works as a solvent, humectant, penetration enhancer and also gives a good slip to the products. [more]
Surfactant/cleansing: Cetearyl Alcohol
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying | viscosity controlling | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 1 2
A common multitasker ingredient that gives your skin a nice soft feel (emollient). It also helps water and oil to blend (emulsifier) and to thicken up products. [more]
,
Cetearyl Glucoside
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A sugar based emulsifier that's especially great for low viscosity lotions or even sprays. [more]
,
Peg-100 Stearate
what‑it‑does surfactant/cleansing | emulsifying
irritancy, com. 0 1
A commonly used water-soluble surfactant and emulsifier. [more]
,
Polysorbate 60
what‑it‑does emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing
A common little helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix together, aka emulsifier.
Viscosity controlling: Dipropylene Glycol
what‑it‑does solvent | viscosity controlling
A clear, colorless liquid that works as a solvent and viscosity decreasing ingredient. 
,
Hydrogenated Poly(C6-14 Olefin)
what‑it‑does emollient | viscosity controlling
,
Cetearyl Alcohol
what‑it‑does emollient | emulsifying | viscosity controlling | surfactant/cleansing
irritancy, com. 1 2
A common multitasker ingredient that gives your skin a nice soft feel (emollient). It also helps water and oil to blend (emulsifier) and to thicken up products. [more]
,
Cyclomethicone
what‑it‑does emollient | moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
A mixture of 4 to 7 chain length cyclic silicones. It's a light, volatile ingredient that gives skin or hair a smooth feel and has emollient properties. [more]
,
C12-16 Alcohols
what‑it‑does emollient | viscosity controlling
,
Microcrystalline Cellulose
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A smaller version of the natural, cell-wall building polymer cellulose. Mostly used as a mattifier or a helper ingredient that improves the skin feel of the formula. [more]
,
Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A helper ingredient that's good at stabilizing water-based formulas and also serves as a thickener. It's especially recommended for low pH products, like exfoliants.
,
Hydrolyzed Corn Starch
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | viscosity controlling
Chemically chopped up version of corn starch - helps to keep formulas together (binding), and improves foam quality. It's also a skin moisturizer. [more]
,
Cellulose Gum
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A cellulose (the big molecule found in the cell wall of green plants) derivative that is used as an emulsion stabilizer and thickener. 
,
Propylene Glycol
what‑it‑does moisturizer/humectant | solvent | viscosity controlling
irritancy, com. 0 0
A common glycol that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products. It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer. [more]
,
Xanthan Gum
what‑it‑does viscosity controlling
A super commonly used thickener and emulsion stabilizer. [more]

Skim through

Ingredient name what-it-does irr., com. ID-Rating
Water solvent
Glycerin skin-identical ingredient, moisturizer/​humectant 0, 0 goodie
Dipropylene Glycol solvent, viscosity controlling
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride emollient goodie
Hydrogenated Poly(C6-14 Olefin) emollient, viscosity controlling
Hydrogenated Polydecene emollient
Cetearyl Alcohol emollient, emulsifying, viscosity controlling, surfactant/​cleansing 1, 2
1,2-Hexanediol solvent
Dimethicone emollient 0, 1
Cyclomethicone emollient, moisturizer/​humectant, solvent, viscosity controlling
Vegetable Oil emollient
Bifida Ferment Lysate goodie
Glyceryl Stearate Se emulsifying 2, 3
Dimethiconol emollient, moisturizer/​humectant
Cyclopentasiloxane emollient, solvent
Ulmus Davidiana Root Extract moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Amaranthus Caudatus Seed Extract emollient goodie
Piper Methysticum Leaf/Root/Stem Extract icky
Beta Vulgaris (Beet) Root Extract antioxidant, moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Algae Extract emollient, moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Artemisia Vulgaris Extract
Portulaca Oleracea Extract soothing, antioxidant goodie
Pueraria Thunbergiana Root Extract
Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract soothing, skin brightening superstar
Paeonia Lactiflora Root Extract
Cnidium Officinale Root Extract
Hydrogenated Lecithin emollient, emulsifying goodie
Sodium Hyaluronate skin-identical ingredient, moisturizer/​humectant 0, 0 goodie
Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil perfuming icky
Soluble Collagen moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Pelargonium Graveolens Flower Oil perfuming icky
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice soothing, moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Oil
Pogostemon Cablin Oil perfuming
Cetearyl Glucoside emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Cetearyl Olivate emulsifying
Sorbitan Olivate emulsifying
C12-16 Alcohols emollient, viscosity controlling
Ceramide 3 skin-identical ingredient goodie
Microcrystalline Cellulose viscosity controlling
Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer viscosity controlling
Squalane skin-identical ingredient, emollient 0, 1 goodie
Glyceryl Stearate emollient, emulsifying
Peg-100 Stearate surfactant/​cleansing, emulsifying 0, 1
Hydrolyzed Corn Starch moisturizer/​humectant, viscosity controlling
Palmitic Acid skin-identical ingredient, emollient, emulsifying 0, 2
Coco-Caprylate/Caprate emollient
Polysorbate 60 emulsifying, surfactant/​cleansing
Caramel colorant
Cellulose Gum viscosity controlling
Propylene Glycol moisturizer/​humectant, solvent, viscosity controlling 0, 0
Butylene Glycol moisturizer/​humectant, solvent 0, 1
Disodium Edta chelating
Panthenol soothing, moisturizer/​humectant 0, 0 goodie
Acacia Senegal Gum
Folic Acid
Acetic Acid buffering
Cholesterol skin-identical ingredient, emollient goodie
Raffinose moisturizer/​humectant goodie
Lactic Acid exfoliant, moisturizer/​humectant superstar
Xanthan Gum viscosity controlling
Tromethamine buffering
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 cell-communicating ingredient goodie

Ingredients explained

Also-called: Aqua | What-it-does: solvent

Good old water, aka H2O. The most common skincare ingredient of all. You can usually find it right in the very first spot of the ingredient list, meaning it’s the biggest thing out of all the stuff that makes up the product. 

It’s mainly a solvent for ingredients that do not like to dissolve in oils but rather in water. 

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Once inside the skin, it hydrates, but not from the outside - putting pure water on the skin (hello long baths!) is drying. 

One more thing: the water used in cosmetics is purified and deionized (it means that almost all of the mineral ions inside it is removed). Like this, the products can stay more stable over time. 

Glycerin - goodie
Also-called: Glycerol | What-it-does: skin-identical ingredient, moisturizer/humectant | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0
  • A natural moisturizer that’s also in our skin
  • Super common, used for more than 50 years
  • Not only a simple moisturizer but plays an important role in keeping the stuff between our skin cells healthy
  • High-glycerin moisturizers are awesome for treating severely dry skin
Read all the geeky details about Glycerin here >>

A clear, colorless liquid that works as a solvent and viscosity decreasing ingredient. 

What-it-does: emollient

A very common emollient that makes your skin feel nice and smooth. It comes from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s light-textured, clear, odorless and non-greasy. It’s a nice ingredient that just feels good on the skin, and it’s also easy to formulate with. No wonder it’s popular. 

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Also-called: Alphaflow | What-it-does: emollient

A hydrocarbon-based emollient that can come in different viscosities from silky-light through satiny-smooth to luxurious, rich. It forms a non-occlusive film on the surface of the skin and brings gloss without greasiness to the formula. It's a very pure and hypoallergenic emollient that's also ideal for baby care products. 

What-it-does: emollient, emulsifying, viscosity controlling, surfactant/cleansing | Irritancy: 1 | Comedogenicity: 2

A super common multitasker ingredient that gives your skin a nice soft feel (emollient). It also helps water and oil to blend (emulsifier) and to thicken up products

It’s a so-called fatty alcohol (a mix of cetyl and stearyl alcohol - other two emollient fatty alcohols).  Though alcohol is in its name, its properties are totally different from the properties of “normal” alcohol, or denat. alcohol. It’s not drying and not irritating and totally ok for the skin.

What-it-does: solvent

A really multi-functional helper ingredient that can do several things in a skincare product: it can bring a soft and pleasant feel to the formula, it can act as a humectant and emollient, it can be a solvent for some other ingredients (for example it can help to stabilize perfumes in watery products) and it can also help to disperse pigments more evenly in makeup products. And that is still not all: it can also boost the antimicrobial activity of preservatives

What-it-does: emollient | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 1

Probably the cheapest and most common silicone of all. It is a polymer (created from repeating subunits) molecule and has different molecular weight and thus different viscosity versions from water-light to thick liquid.

As for skincare, it makes the skin silky smooth, creates a subtle gloss and forms a protective barrier. Also, works well to fill in fine lines and wrinkles and give skin a plump look (of course that is only temporary, but still, it's nice). There are also scar treatment gels out there using dimethicone as their base ingredient. It helps to soften scars and increase their elasticity. 

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As for hair care, it is a non-volatile silicone meaning that it stays on the hair rather than evaporates from it and smoothes the hair like no other thing. Depending on your hair type, it can be a bit difficult to wash out and might cause some build-up (btw, this is not true to all silicones, only the non-volatile types). 

Cyclomethicone is not one type of silicone, but a whole mixture of them: it's a mix of specific chain length (4 to 7) cyclic structured silicone molecules. (There seems to be a confusion on the internet whether Cyclomethicone and Cyclopentasiloxane are the same. They are not the same, but Cyclopentasiloxane is part of the mixture that makes up Cyclomethicone). 

All the silicones in the Cyclomethicone mixture are volatile, meaning they evaporate from the skin or hair rather than stay on it. This means that Cyclomethicone has a light skin feel with none-to-minimal after-feel.  It also makes the formulas easy to spread and has nice emollient properties.

Also-called: Huile Vegetale, Olus Oil | What-it-does: emollient

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

It’s a probiotic ingredient that’s used in one of the most iconic serums in the world, the Estee Lauder Advanced Night Repair.

Based on manufacturer info it potently protects against UV-induced damage in the skin and helps with DNA repair. An Estee Lauder patent from 2009 also talks about DNA repair activity.

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As far as published research goes we could find one promising one. It showed that applying 10% bacterial extract to sensitive, reactive skin helped with better barrier function and decreased skin sensitivity

So all in all: definitely a promising ingredient, even for sensitive skin types but not the most proven one (yet).

What-it-does: emulsifying | Irritancy: 2 | Comedogenicity: 3

It’s an oily kind of ingredient that can magically blend with water all by itself. This is called self-emulsifying and SE in its name stands for that. 

Other than that it’s a nice emollient that gives a smooth and soft appearance to the skin.

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A thick, high molecular weight silicone that is usually diluted in another, lighter silicone fluid (like dimethicone or cyclopentasiloxane). The dimethiconol containing silicone blends leave a silky smooth, non-greasy film on the skin.

What-it-does: emollient, solvent

A super commonly used 5 unit long, cyclic structured silicone that is water-thin and does not stay on the skin but evaporates from it (called volatile silicone). Similar to other silicones, it gives skin and hair a silky, smooth feel

It's often combined with the non-volatile (aka stays on the skin) dimethicone as the two together form a water-resistant, breathable protective barrier on the skin without a negative tacky feel.

Also-called: Ulmus Extract | What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant

A nice plant extract that's used as a traditional oriental medicine in China and Korea. A 2006 study examined the cosmetic properties of the  polysaccharide extract and found a couple of promising things:

The main components of the extract are water-binding sugars, namely  rhamnose, galactose, and glucose. After this, it's not very surprising that the extract itself is also a great skin moisturizer almost as good as superstar NMF, hyaluronic acid. But that's not all: the researchers also found that Ulmus extract has promising anti-inflammatory and photoprotective properties. Seems like a goodie plant extract. 

Also-called: Amaranth Seed Extract | What-it-does: emollient

It's the seed extract of a plant called amaranth or love-lies-bleeding.  It's a really ancient plant grown by Aztecs, Incas and Mayas as their main food and they called it “the golden grain”. They believed it had supernatural powers. Nowadays it's a popular health food because the seeds have great nutritional benefits and are high in protein.

As for skincare there are two types of the seed extract: 

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1, The aqueous extract contains a high concentration of peptides and polysaccharides and helps to improve the combability and manageability of damaged hair

2. The oily extract is more common and acts as other similar emollient plant oils. It's rich in non-saturated fatty acids (linoleic acid/omega-6 and oleic acid/omega-9) and squalene and is a great moisturizer and emollient for both skin and hair. 

Also-called: Kava Kava Extract

Kava kava is a crop of the western Pacific that has some analgesic (painkiller) properties. According to Paula's Choice, it can also cause skin irritation. A 2009 safety assessment of the ingredient concluded that "the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetics".

Also-called: Beet Root Extract | What-it-does: antioxidant, moisturizer/humectant

Beetroot is a beautifully colored vegetable that you probably know from the kitchen. As for skincare - according to manufacturer info - it works as a natural moisturizer that might be able to increase the concentration of NMFs (natural moisturizing factors) in the upper layer of the skin giving skin both immediate and longer term hydration. 

According to Paula's Choice, it's also a colorant and a source of antioxidants

Algae Extract - goodie

We have to admit that Algae Extract is not our favorite ingredient name. It does comply with the INCI standard (the official list about how ingredients on the product labels have to be called, the thing we help you to decode here :)), but there are about 20 000 different kinds of algae and an extract from them can be made in another 10 000 ways.

So, Algae Extract can be anything from La Mer's "Miracle Broth" to a simple brown algae extract that helps to smooth the hair. The official description in the Europiean Cosmetic Ingredient listing is this: "an extract of various species of Algae; Extract of the Seaweed, Fucus vesiculosus, Furaceae". Its official functions include being a humectant (helps skin to attract water), emollient (makes skin feel smooth and nice) and skin conditioner (a catchall phrase for saying it does something good for the skin).

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A 2015 research paper on the potential of uses of algae in cosmetics summarizes that algae are rich sources of biologically active metabolites including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, alginates, polysaccharides, and carotenoids. Currently, algae extracts are mostly used as moisturizing and thickening agents, but algae also have great potential to combat skin aging, pigmentation as well as working as an antimicrobial.

We have also browsed through Prospector to see what manufacturers say about their algae. There is, for example, an algae extract trade-named Lanablue that comes from blue-green algae (green algae is rare, less than 1% of the total macroalgae in the world) and is claimed to have retinoid like effects (i.e. reduce wrinkles, smooth skin) but without the side effects. 

There is another algae extract from another manufacturer that comes from red algae (much more common, about 40% of total macroalgae worldwide) and is claimed to have not only moisturizing but also skin smoothing and densifying effects. 

Here is a brown algae extract (the most common type, about 59% of macroalgae), also just called Algae Extract on the product label that is simply claimed to be a free radical scavenger, aka antioxidant. These were just three random examples from three manufacturers all called Algae extract even though they all come from different algae with different claims.

Anyhow, the point is this; there are tons of different types of Algae Extracts out there. Unless the brand tells you what they use, it's impossible to know for sure. The most probable scenario for the Alge Extract is that it works as a moisturizer and emollient and it might have some additional anti-aging properties.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Also-called: Purslane Extract | What-it-does: soothing, antioxidant

A nice succulent with bright yellow flowers and edible nutritious vegetables. It's a famous plant in Korean traditional medicine to treat infection and irritated skin.

Modern research confirms that it's loaded with skin-goodies: it's the richest green plant source of omega-3 fatty acids (α-linolenic acid), contains NMFs (polysaccharides and amino acids),  vitamins (β-carotene), minerals, and antioxidants (yellow betaxanthins and reddish betacyanins). Thanks to all its beneficial components, Purslane Extract has several magic properties: it's a great anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent and also has wound healing abilities

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Also-called: Licorice Root | What-it-does: soothing, skin brightening

You might know licorice as a sweet treat from your childhood, but it's actually a legume that grows around the Mediterranean Sea, the Middle East, central and southern Russia. It's sweet and yellow and not only used for licorice all sorts but it's also a skincare superstar thanks to two magic properties:

Nr. 1 magic property is that it has skin-lightening or to say it another way depigmenting properties. The most active part is called glabridin. The topical application (meaning when you put it on your face) of 0.5% glabridin was shown to inhibit UVB caused pigmentation of guinea pigs. Another study even suggested that licorice is more effective than the gold standard skin-lightening agent hydroquinone. All in all, licorice is considered to be one of the safest skin lightening agents with the fewest side effects.

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There is just one catch regarding glabridin and licorice: the amount of glabridin in commercial licorice extracts can vary a lot. We have seen extracts with only 4% glabridin as well as 40% glabridin. The latter one is a very-very expensive ingredient, so if you are after the depigmenting properties try to choose a product that boasts its high-quality licorice extract. 

Nr. 2 magic property is that licorice is a potent anti-inflammatory. Glabridin has also some soothing properties but the main active anti-inflammatory component is glycyrrhizin. It’s used to treat several skin diseases that are connected to inflammation including atopic dermatitis, rosacea or eczema. 

Oh, and one more thing: glabridin seems to be also an antioxidant, which is just one more reason to be happy about licorice root extract on an ingredient list. 

Bottom line: Licorice is a great skincare ingredient with significant depigmenting, anti-inflammatory and even some antioxidant properties. Be happy if it's on the ingredient list. :)

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: emollient, emulsifying

It's the chemically chopped up version of normal lecithin. Most often it's used to create liposomes and to coat and stabilize other ingredients. 

What-it-does: skin-identical ingredient, moisturizer/humectant | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0

It’s the - sodium form - cousin of the famous NMFhyaluronic acid (HA). If HA does not tell you anything we have a super detailed, geeky explanation about it here.  The TL; DR version of HA is that it's a huge polymer (big molecule from repeated subunits) found in the skin that acts as a sponge helping the skin to hold onto water, being plump and elastic. HA is famous for its crazy water holding capacity as it can bind up to 1000 times its own weight in water.

As far as skincare goes, sodium hyaluronate and hyaluronic acid are pretty much the same and the two names are used interchangeably. As cosmetic chemist kindofstephen writes on reddit  "sodium hyaluronate disassociates into hyaluronic acid molecule and a sodium atom in solution". 

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In spite of this, if you search for "hyaluronic acid vs sodium hyaluronate" you will find on multiple places that sodium hyaluronate is smaller and can penetrate the skin better. Chemically, this is definitely not true, as the two forms are almost the same, both are polymers and the subunits can be repeated in both forms as much as you like. (We also checked Prospector for sodium hyaluronate versions actually used in cosmetic products and found that the most common molecular weight was 1.5-1.8 million Da that absolutely counts as high molecular weight).

What seems to be a true difference, though, is that the salt form is more stable, easier to formulate and cheaper so it pops up more often on the ingredient lists. 

If you wanna become a real HA-and-the-skin expert you can read way more about the topic at hyaluronic acid (including penetration-questions, differences between high and low molecular weight versions and a bunch of references to scientific literature).

Also-called: Bergamot Fruit Oil | What-it-does: perfuming

The essential oil coming from the fruit (probably the rind) of the bergamot orange.  It's a common top note in perfumes and contains (among others) fragrant compounds limonene (37%), linalyl acetate (30%) and linalool (8.8%). 

A well-known issue with bergamot oil (apart from the fragrance allergens) is that it contains phototoxic compounds called furanocoumarins, but more and more commonly furanocoumarin-free versions are used in cosmetic products. Still, if you have sensitive skin and prefer fragrance-free products, bergamot oil is not for you.

Soluble Collagen - goodie
What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant

Soluble Collagen refers to the big, natural collagen molecules mostly extracted from fish or bovine skin. Spotting collagen on the ingredient list, you might think that, aha, this must be there to supplement the collagen content of our own skin, but you have to know that collagen is a huge-huge molecule that cannot absorb to the middle layer of the skin where collagen is and even if it could, it cannot just magically go the right places to become part of the skin's own collagen network. Putting collagen on your skin for anti-aging purposes is like throwing tent poles onto a ramshackle tent and expecting the tent to magically become nice and firm again. 

The strong point of collagen is being a large molecule with tremendous water binding capacity, i.e. an amazing humectant and moisturizer. It produces a water-rich film on the skin giving the stratum corneum (the uppermost layer of the skin) great hydration, making it nice and smooth and reducing trans-epidermal-water loss (the process of water evaporating out of your skin). 

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It is also so gentle and non-irritant that it can actually be used in cleansers to reduce the irritating potential of harsh surfactants, aka cleansing agents. 

If you are fine with animal-derived ingredients and know that collagen in a jar has nothing to do with wrinkles but everything to do with skin hydration, Soluble Collagen is a nice ingredient. 

 

Also-called: Rose Geranium Flower Essential Oil | What-it-does: perfuming

The fragrant essential oil coming from the flowers of Rose Geranium. Like most essential oils, it contains antioxidant and antimicrobial components, but the main ones are fragrant constituents (like citronellol and geraniol). Be careful with it, if your skin is sensitive. 

Also-called: Aloe Vera | What-it-does: soothing, moisturizer/humectant

Aloe Vera is one of today’s magic plants. It does have some very nice properties indeed, though famous dermatologist Leslie Baumann warns us in her book that most of the evidence is anecdotal and the plant might be a bit overhyped.

What research does confirm about Aloe is that it’s a great moisturizer and has several anti-inflammatory (among others contains salicylates, polysaccharides, magnesium lactate and C-glucosyl chromone) as well as some antibacterial components. It also helps wound healing and skin regeneration in general. All in all definitely a goodie. 

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Also-called: Patchouli Essential Oil | What-it-does: perfuming

If you are into perfumes, you must know patchouli as an important essential oil in the perfume industry. It boasts a pleasant woody, earthy and camphoraceous scent and has fixative properties (makes the fragrance long-lasting).

Its composition is pretty unique: it does not contain any of the EU's 26 most common fragrance allergens, but its most important components are patchoulol (30%) and alpha-patchoulene (6%) which are responsible for its aroma and antifungal properties.

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Among essential oils, the allergen profile of patchouli counts as pretty good (much better than ylang-ylang or lemongrass oils), but if your skin is sensitive, it's still best to avoid it.

A sugar based emulsifier that's especially great for low viscosity lotions or even sprays. It's effective in small amounts, only 1-1.5% is needed to form an emulsion. The resulting cream or lotion has great cosmetic properties with good spreadability and an enhanced soft skin feel. 

What-it-does: emulsifying

An ester that comes from Cetearyl alcohol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It often comes to the formula coupled with Sorbitan Olivate and the two together help water and oil to blend (emulsifier). It's a natural and Ecocert approved duo.

What-it-does: emulsifying

An ester coming from sorbitol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It often comes to the formula coupled with Cetearyl Olivate and the two together help water and oil to blend (emulsifier). It's a natural and Ecocert approved duo.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

Ceramide 3 - goodie
Also-called: Ceramide 3 | What-it-does: skin-identical ingredient

One of the 9 types of ceramides that can be found naturally in the upper layer of the skin. Ceramides make up 50% of the goopy stuff that's between our skin cells and play a super important role in having a healthy skin barrier and keeping the skin hydrated

We wrote way more about ceramides at ceramide 1, so click here to know more.

Cellulose is an important component of the cell walls of green plants and it's the most abundant natural polymer (big molecule from repeated subunits) on Earth. If the polymer structure is not too big (less than 200 repeated units), cellulose becomes microcrystalline cellulose.

In skin care, it comes as a fine or less fine white powder. The less fine (bigger particle size) version is used as a gentle scrubbing agent (a nice natural, biodegradable alternative to now banned plastic polyethylene) and the ultra fine version is used as a helper ingredient that gives a super-silky, soft touch, reduces tackiness or greasiness and can also be used as a mattifying agent.

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Combined with Cellulose Gum, it also works as a nice gelling agent.

This horribly long named thing is a helper ingredient that's good at stabilizing water-based formulas and also serves as a thickener. It's especially recommended for low pH products, like exfoliants.

Squalane - goodie
What-it-does: skin-identical ingredient, emollient | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 1

It seems to us that squalane is in fashion and there is a reason for it. Chemically speaking, it is a saturated  (no double bonds) hydrocarbon (a molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen), meaning that it's a nice and stable oily liquid with a long shelf life. 

It occurs naturally in certain fish and plant oils (e.g. olive), and in the sebum (the oily stuff our skin produces) of the human skin. As f.c. puts it in his awesome blog post, squalane's main things are "emolliency, surface occlusion, and TEWL prevention all with extreme cosmetic elegance". In other words, it's a superb moisturizer that makes your skin nice and smooth, without being heavy or greasy.

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Another advantage of squalane is that it is pretty much compatible with all skin types and skin conditions. It is excellent for acne-prone skin and safe to use even if you have fungi-related skin issues, like seborrhea or fungal acne.

The unsaturated (with double bonds) and hence less stable version of Squalane is Squalene, you can read about it here >> 

What-it-does: emollient, emulsifying

A super common, waxy, white, solid stuff that helps water and oil to mix together and leaves the skin feeling soft and smooth.

It can be produced from most vegetable oils in a pretty simple, "green" process that is similar to soap making. It's readily biodegradable.

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It also occurs naturally in our body and is used as a food additive. As cosmetic chemist Colins writes it, "its safety really is beyond any doubt".

What-it-does: surfactant/cleansing, emulsifying | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 1

A very common water-loving surfactant and emulsifier that helps to keep water and oil mixed nicely together. 

It's often paired with glyceryl stearate - the two together form a super effective emulsifier duo that's salt and acid tolerant and works over a wide pH range. It also gives a "pleasing product aesthetics", so no wonder it's popular.

It's the chemically chopped up version of corn starch. According to manufacturer info it helps to keep formulas together (binding), and improves foam quality (makes nice, creamy foam :)). It's also a blend of poly- and monosaccharides and works as a skin moisturizer giving products a nice soft feel.

What-it-does: skin-identical ingredient, emollient, emulsifying | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 2

A fatty acid that can be found naturally in the skin. In fact, it's the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals and plants.

As for skincare, it can make the skin feel nice and smooth in moisturizers (emollient) or it can act as a foam building cleansing agent in cleansers. It's also a very popular ingredient in shaving foams. 

What-it-does: emollient

An emollient ester that leaves a silky finish on the skin and increases the hydrating power of the formula.

In makeup products, it can counteract the drying effect of long-wear or waterproof formulas, and it also works great in shaving products to improve razor glide. 

A common little helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix together, aka emulsifier.

What-it-does: colorant

The caramel in cosmetics is pretty much the same one that you know from the kitchen. It is derived by controlled heat treatment of food-grade carbohydrates (sugars) and works as a brown colorant

Also-called: Carboxymethyl Cellulose | What-it-does: viscosity controlling, emulsion stabilising

A cellulose (the big molecule found in the cell wall of green plants) derivative that is used as an emulsion stabilizer and thickener

What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant, solvent, viscosity controlling | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0
  • It's a helper ingredient that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products
  • It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer
  • It has a bad reputation among natural cosmetics advocates but cosmetic scientists and toxicology experts do not agree (read more in the geeky details section)
Read all the geeky details about Propylene Glycol here >>

What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant, solvent | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 1

Butylene glycol, or let’s just call it BG, is a multi-tasking colorless, syrupy liquid. It’s a great pick for creating a nice feeling product.  

BG’s main job is usually to be a solvent for the other ingredients. Other tasks include helping the product to absorb faster and deeper into the skin (penetration enhancer), making the product spread nicely over the skin (slip agent), and attracting water (humectant) into the skin.

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It’s an ingredient whose safety hasn’t been questioned so far by anyone (at least not that we know about). BG is approved by Ecocert and is also used enthusiastically in natural products. BTW, it’s also a food additive. 

What-it-does: chelating

Super common little helper ingredient that helps products to remain nice and stable for a longer time. It does so by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula (that usually get into there from water) that would otherwise cause some not so nice changes.

Panthenol - goodie
Also-called: Pro-Vitamin B5 | What-it-does: soothing, moisturizer/humectant | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0

An easy-to-formulate, commonly used, nice to have ingredient that’s also called pro-vitamin B5. As you might guess from the “pro” part, it’s a precursor to vitamin B5 (whose fancy name is pantothenic acid). 

Its main job in skincare products is to moisturise the skin. It’s a humectant meaning that it can help the skin to attract water and then hold onto it. There is also research showing that panthenol can help our skin to produce more lovely lipids that are important for a strong and healthy skin barrier. 

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Another great thing about panthenol is that it has anti-inflammatory and skin protecting abilities. A study shows that it can reduce the irritation caused by less-nice other ingredients (e.g. fragrance, preservatives or chemical sunscreens) in the product.

Research also shows that it might be useful for wound healing as it promotes fibroblast (nice type of cells in our skin that produce skin-firming collagen) proliferation. 

If that wasn’t enough panthenol is also useful in nail and hair care products. A study shows that a nail treatment liquide with 2% panthenol could effectively get into the nail and significantly increase the hydration of it.

As for the hair the hydration effect is also true there. Panthenol might make your hair softer, more elastic and helps to comb your hair more easily. 

Also-called: Gum Arabic

A natural polymer (big molecules from repeated subunits) that is harvested from the Acacia tree in the sub-Saharan region in Africa. It's a great thickening and binding agent. Often coupled with xanthan gum, as it helps to reduce its unpleasant stickiness.

We don't have description for this ingredient yet.

What-it-does: buffering

The acid found in vinegar. Can be a skin irritant and drying in larger amounts but in tiny amounts, it's used to set the pH of the cosmetic formula. Has also some disinfecting properties.

Cholesterol - goodie

It's one of the important lipids that can be found naturally in the outer layer of the skin. About 25% of the goopy stuff between our skin cells consists of cholesterol. Together with ceramides and fatty acids, they play a vital role in having a healthy skin barrier and keeping the skin hydrated. 

Apart from being an important skin-identical ingredient, it's also an emollient and stabilizer

Raffinose - goodie
What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant

It's a so-called trisaccharide (consists of three monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose) that - similar to other sugar-type ingredients - works as a water-binding, moisturizer ingredient on the skin. 

Lactic Acid - superstar
  • It’s the second most researched AHA after glycolic acid
  • It gently lifts off dead skin cells to reveal newer, fresher, smoother skin
  • It also has amazing skin hydrating properties
  • In higher concentration (10% and up) it improves skin firmness, thickness and wrinkles
  • Choose a product where you know the concentration and pH value because these two greatly influence effectiveness
  • Don’t forget to use your sunscreen (in any case but especially so next to an AHA product)
Read all the geeky details about Lactic Acid here >>

It's one of the most commonly used thickeners and emulsion stabilizers. If the product is too runny, a little of xanthan gum will make it more gel-like.  Used alone, it can make the formula sticky so it is usually combined with other thickeners and so-called rheology modifiers (helper ingredients that adjust the flow and thus the feel of the formula). 

Btw, Xanthan gum is all natural, a chain of sugar molecules (polysaccharide) produced from individual sugar molecules (glucose and sucrose) via fermentation. It’s approved by Ecocert and also used in the food industry (E415). 

What-it-does: buffering

It's a little helper ingredient that helps to set the pH of the products to be right. It has an alkaline pH and can neutralize acidic ingredients.

Also-called: Matrixyl, Pal-KTTKS, Formerly Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 | What-it-does: cell-communicating ingredient

A pretty famous and better-researched peptide consisting of five amino acids (the building blocks of all proteins). It was created in a joint effort by the French ingredient supplier, Sederma and the cosmetics industry big shot, Procter&Gamble.

The amino acid sequence of the peptide is lysine–threonine–threonine–lysine–serine (KTTKS). Sometimes, it's also called collagen pentapeptide, as it's a subfragment of skin-structure-giving type I collagen. The KTTKS amino sequence is then attached for better oil solubility and skin penetration to palmitic acid and BOOM; we get Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4. 

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Though most research is manufacturer sponsored, the clinical studies about Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 are promising.  In short, it can reduce fine lines, wrinkles and improve skin texture significantly (and at crazy low concentrations, the studies were done with just 3 ppm that is 0.0003%).

There are also studies comparing Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 with anti-aging gold standard, retinol. One of them compared 3ppm Pal-KTTKS with 700 ppm (0.07%) retinol and found that they showed similar wrinkle improving ability with the peptide showing better skin tolerability.

Bottom line, if you are into peptides, this is a good one to try.

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