Brightening Face Serum
|Ingredient name||what-it-does||irr., com.||ID-Rating|
|Butylene Glycol||moisturizer/humectant, solvent||0, 1|
|Niacinamide||cell-communicating ingredient, skin brightening, anti-acne, moisturizer/humectant||superstar|
|Zinc Pca||anti-acne, moisturizer/humectant||goodie|
|Kojic Acid||antioxidant, skin brightening|
|Galactomyces Ferment Filtrate||moisturizer/humectant||goodie|
|Cetylpyridinium Chloride||antimicrobial/antibacterial, emulsifying, surfactant/cleansing|
Soleluna Brightening Face SerumIngredients explained
Good old water, aka H2O. The most common skincare ingredient of all. You can usually find it right in the very first spot of the ingredient list, meaning it’s the biggest thing out of all the stuff that makes up the product.
It’s mainly a solvent for ingredients that do not like to dissolve in oils but rather in water.
Once inside the skin, it hydrates, but not from the outside - putting pure water on the skin (hello long baths!) is drying.
One more thing: the water used in cosmetics is purified and deionized (it means that almost all of the mineral ions inside it is removed). Like this, the products can stay more stable over time.
Butylene glycol, or let’s just call it BG, is a multi-tasking colorless, syrupy liquid. It’s a great pick for creating a nice feeling product.
BG’s main job is usually to be a solvent for the other ingredients. Other tasks include helping the product to absorb faster and deeper into the skin (penetration enhancer), making the product spread nicely over the skin (slip agent), and attracting water (humectant) into the skin.
It’s an ingredient whose safety hasn’t been questioned so far by anyone (at least not that we know about). BG is approved by Ecocert and is also used enthusiastically in natural products. BTW, it’s also a food additive.
Propanediol is a natural alternative for the often used and often bad-mouthed propylene glycol. It's produced sustainably from corn sugar and it's Ecocert approved.
It's quite a multi-tasker: can be used to improve skin moisturization, as a solvent, to boost preservative efficacy or to influence the sensory properties of the end formula.
- A multi-functional skincare superstar with several proven benefits for the skin
- Great anti-aging, wrinkle smoothing ingredient used at 4-5% concentration
- Fades brown spots alone or in combination with amino sugar, acetyl glucosamine
- Increases ceramide synthesis that results in a stronger, healthier skin barrier and better skin hydration
- Can help to improve several skin conditions including acne, rosacea, and atopic dermatitis
- It’s a polyhydroxy acid (PHA), that is often referred to as next generation AHA
- It gently lifts off dead skin cells form the skin surface making skin smooth and even
- In the long term it provides anti-aging benefits, like increased skin thickness and decreased wrinkles (though a tad less than even more proven superstar AHAs)
- It’s a great moisturizer and even helps to repair impaired skin barrier
- It’s antioxidant, and does not make your skin more sensitive to the sun
- It can be used even if your skin is very sensitive, rosacea prone or if you are post cosmetic procedure
If you have oily, acne-prone skin, Zinc PCA is one of the actives to put on your "TO TRY" list.
It's a synergistic association of two great things: Zinc and L-PCA. The Zinc part is there to help normalize sebum production and limit the proliferation of evil acne-causing bacteria. L-PCA stands for pyrrolidone carboxylic acid and it's a key molecule in the skin that helps with processes of hydration and energy (it's actually an NMF, a natural moisturizing factor).
L-PCA is not only there to hydrate the skin, but it also helps to increase the efficacy and bioavailability of zinc. An in-vivo (done on real people) test done by the manufacturer shows that Zinc PCA reduces sebum production statistically significantly after 28 days of application (1% was used in the test), and in-vitro (made in the lab) measurements show that Zinc PCA has strong anti-microbial activity against P. acnes (between 0.1-0.25%) and other bacterial strains.
If that would not be enough there is also a 2011 research paper saying that based on in-vitro (made in the lab, not on real people) findings Zinc PCA might be a promising anti-aging active that helps with the production of type I collagen (and we all know more collagen = firmer skin).
All in all, definitely a goodie for oily, acne-prone skin.
We don't have description for this ingredient yet.
A famous water-like, yeast-derived ingredient that the whole SKII brand is built on. As legend has it, SKII scientists in the 1970's discovered by chance that aged Japanese sake brewers have amazingly soft and youthful hands in contrast to their aged and wrinkled faces. They concluded that the secret must lie in the yeast that the brewers’ hands were in constant contact with during the sake fermentation process.
So Pitera - obtained by a fermentation process of a certain yeast belonging to the genus Galactomyces - was discovered as an anti-aging, skin-nourishing magic liquid. The company claims that the clear, water-like liquid is loaded with good-for-the-skin stuff and is rich in vitamins, amino acids, minerals and organic acids.
As for the science behind Pitera, SKII parent company P&G did an in-vitro (made in the lab) study that confirmed that Pitera-containing moisturizers do indeed help to protect the skin against damage. More specifically, they found that Pitera has antioxidant effects and increases hyaluronan production in epidermal cells. And more hyaluronic acid in the skin means better hydrated, plumper, healthier skin.
If that would not be enough, there is also a 2014 study showing that Pitera might be able to help with skin pigmentation and a 2015 study finding that Galactomyces Ferment Filtrate can activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that's important in epidermal homeostasis by upregulating epidermal barrier proteins. English translation equals: Pitera might be able to help with a healthy skin barrier.
All in all, both anecdotal and scientific evidence show that Pitera is a skin goodie so if you are into essences and yeast-derived fermentations, it's definitely worth a try.
It’s pretty much the current IT-preservative. It’s safe and gentle, but even more importantly, it’s not a feared-by-everyone-mostly-without-scientific-reason paraben.
It’s not something new: it was introduced around 1950 and today it can be used up to 1% worldwide. It can be found in nature - in green tea - but the version used in cosmetics is synthetic.
Other than having a good safety profile and being quite gentle to the skin it has some other advantages too. It can be used in many types of formulations as it has great thermal stability (can be heated up to 85°C) and works on a wide range of pH levels (ph 3-10).
It’s often used together with ethylhexylglycerin as it nicely improves the preservative activity of phenoxyethanol.
A nice little helper ingredient that can thicken up cosmetic products and create beautiful gel formulas. It's derived from cellulose, the major component of the cell wall of green plants. It is compatible with most co-ingredients and gives a very good slip to the formulas.
|what‑it‑does||moisturizer/humectant | solvent|
|irritancy, com.||0, 1|
|what‑it‑does||solvent | moisturizer/humectant|
|what‑it‑does||cell-communicating ingredient | skin brightening | anti-acne | moisturizer/humectant|
|what‑it‑does||exfoliant | chelating|
|what‑it‑does||anti-acne | moisturizer/humectant|
|what‑it‑does||antioxidant | skin brightening|
|what‑it‑does||antimicrobial/antibacterial | emulsifying | surfactant/cleansing|