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Titanium Dioxide

What-it-does: sunscreen


Titanium Dioxide is one of the two members of the elite sunscreen group called physical sunscreens (or inorganic sunscreens if you’re a science geek and want to be precise).

Traditionally, UV-filters are categorized as either chemical or physical. The big difference is supposed to be that chemical agents absorb UV-light while physical agents reflect it like a bunch of mini umbrellas on top of the skin. While this categorization is easy and logical it turns out it's not true. A recent, 2016 study shows that inorganic sunscreens work mostly by absorption, just like chemical filters, and only a little bit by reflection (they do reflect the light in the visible spectrum, but mostly absorb in the UV spectrum).

Anyway, it doesn't matter if it reflects or absorbs, Titanium Dioxide is a pretty awesome sunscreen agent for two main reasons: it gives a nice broad spectrum coverage and it's highly stable. Its protection is very good between 290 - 350 nm (UVB and UVA II range), and less good at 350-400 nm (UVA I) range. Regular sized Titanium Dioxide also has a great safety profile, it's non-irritating and is pretty much free from any health concerns (like estrogenic effect worries with some chemical filters).

The disadvantage of Titanium Dioxide is that it's not cosmetically elegant, meaning it's a white, "unspreadable" mess. Sunscreens containing Titanium Dioxide are often hard to spread on the skin and they leave a disturbing whitish tint. The cosmetic industry is, of course, really trying to solve this problem and the best solution so far is using nanoparticles. The itsy-bitsy Nano-sized particles improve both spreadability and reduce the whitish tint a lot, but unfortunately, it also introduces new health concerns. 

The main concern with nanoparticles is that they are so tiny that they are absorbed into the skin more than we want them (ideally sunscreen should remain on the surface of the skin). Once absorbed they might form unwanted complexes with proteins and they might promote the formation of evil free radicals. But do not panic, these are concerns under investigation. A 2009 review article about the safety of nanoparticles summarizes this, "to date, in-vivo and in-vitro studies have not demonstrated percutaneous penetration of nanosized particles in titanium dioxide and zinc oxide sunscreens". The English translation is, so far it looks like sunscreens with nanoparticles do stay on the surface of the skin where they should be.  

All in all, Titanium Dioxide is a famous sunscreen agent and for good reason, it gives broad spectrum UV protection (best at UVB and UVA II), it's highly stable, and it has a good safety profile. It's definitely one of the best UV-filter agents we have today, especially in the US where new-generation Tinosorb filters are not (yet) approved. 

Show me some proof

  • Newman, Marissa D., Mira Stotland, and Jeffrey I. Ellis. "The safety of nanosized particles in titanium dioxide–and zinc oxide–based sunscreens." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 61.4 (2009): 685-692.
  • Monteiro-Riviere, N. A., et al. "Safety evaluation of sunscreen formulations containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in UVB sunburned skin: an in vitro and in vivo study." Toxicological Sciences (2011): kfr148.
  • Cole, Curtis, Thomas Shyr, and Hao Ou‐Yang. "Metal oxide sunscreens protect skin by absorption, not by reflection or scattering." Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine 32.1 (2016): 5-10.
  • Smijs, Threes G., and Stanislav Pavel. "Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness." Nanotechnol Sci Appl 4.1 (2011): 95-112.

Products with Titanium Dioxide

100% Pure Fruit Pigmented Healthy Foundation A'pieu Madecassoside Stick Foundation Spf 30 Pa++ Alastin Hydratint Pro Mineral Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Spf 36 AlumierMD Clear Shield Broad Spectrum Spf 42 AlumierMD Sheer Hydration Spf 40 Untinted Angel Face Mineral Cosmetics Angel Face Mineral Foundation April Skin Magic Snow Bb Cream Spf50+/Pa+++ Atopalm Bb Cream Australian Gold Botanical Spf 50 Tinted Facial Lotion Avene Light Mineral Lotion Spf 50+ (Face & Body) (Canada) Avene Mineral Light Mattifying Sunscreen Lotion Spf 50+ Avene Ultra-Light Mineral Lotion Spf 50+ (Face) Babo Botanicals Daily Sheer Facial Sunscreen Spf 40 - Fragrance Free Banana Boat Simply Protect Baby Spf 50+ Bare Republic Mineral Spf 30 Face Sunscreen Lotion - Untinted Blue Lizard Sunscreen, Baby, Broad Spectrum Spf 30+ Brickell Men's Products Daily Defense Face Moisturizer For Men Burt's Bees Bb Cream CeraVe Baby Sunscreen Lotion CeraVe Hydrating Sunscreen Face Lotion Broad Spectrum Spf 50 CeraVe Sunscreen Body Lotion Spf 50 Cetaphil Redness Relieving Daily Facial Moisturizer Spf 20 Cliniderm Gentle Protective Lotion Spf 45 Clinique Broad Spectrum Spf 50 Mineral Sunscreen Fluid For Face Clinique Spf 30 Mineral Sunscreen Lotion For Body Colorescience All Calm Clinical Redness Corrector Spf 50 Colorescience Brightening Perfector Spf 20 Colorescience Calming Perfector Spf 20 Coola Daydream® Mineral Spf 30 Makeup Primer Sunscreen Coola Face Spf 30 Mineral Sunscreen Cucumber Matte Finish Coola Mineral Body Sunscreen Spf 50 Coola Mineral Face Spf 30 Matte Tint Moisturizer Coola Mineral Liplux Spf30 Coola Mineral Sport Sunscreen Moisturizer Spf 30 - Citrus Mimosa Cotz Face Natural Skin Tone Spf 40 Cotz Face Natural Tinted Spf 40 Derma E Sun Protection Mineral Powder Spf 30 Dermadoctor Dd Eye Cream Dr Dennis Gross Dark Spot Sun Defense Broad Spectrum Spf 50 Sunscreen Dr Dennis Gross Instant Radiance Sun Defense Sunscreen Broad Spectrum Spf 40 EXUVIANCE BY NEOSTRATA Sheer Daily Protector Spf 50 Epionce Daily Shield Tinted Spf 50 Sunscreen Garnier Ombrelle Kids Water Resistant Lotion Spf 50+ Garnier Ombrelle Tinted Ultra Light Face Mineral Sunscreen Lotion Spf 60 Hanskin Super Light Touch Bb HydroPeptide Solar Defense Non-Tinted Spf 50 KarynG Complete Broad Spectrum Spf50 L'oreal True Match Super Blendable Makeup With Spf LASPA Naturals Spf50 Ultra Sun Protection Stick La Roche-Posay Anthelios Mineral Zinc Oxide Sunscreen Spf 50